Origin of Life – How Life Started on Earth
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Origin of Life – How Life Started on Earth


They’re dazzling, priceless… at times, even glowing. How can one not fall in love with rocks
and minerals? I mean, the colors, the shapes… …and they’re the
building blocks of modern civilization. We wouldn’t have televisions, we wouldn’t
have automobiles, we wouldn’t have buildings without the mineral riches
that we have. But could rocks and minerals also solve the greatest mystery
of all time? The origin of life. The rocks we pick up
tell a story that life couldn’t have occurred without rocks. Could cold,
lifeless stone hold the key to every living thing on Earth? From Australia, to Morocco, Nova goes around the world and back in
time to investigate the origin and evolution of life. Look at a rock and you think ah, well, nothing. but this holds the signature of life. From its first spark… People were saying
they’ve made Frankenstein in a test tube… …To the survival of the fittest. These were immense creatures. Sharks that
may have been 50 or 60 feet. Was it the secret link between rocks and
life that made the difference? Life’s rocky start. Right now, on Nova. The ancient market of Marrakech, a chaotic, colorful gathering place
teeming with life for thousands of years, the perfect place to ask how did this
exotic, beautiful and sometimes bizarre thing called life, begin? How did Earth go from a lifeless, molten
rock… to a living planet? Full of diverse and spectacular creatures. it’s a question that has long perplexed
scientists. Now, Robert Hazen, a geologist, is trying to
show we are missing an essential ingredient in the recipe for life. -look at that vein of calcite… Rocks. Nothing seems more lifeless than a rock. it’s inanimate, it’s the antithesis of a
living thing, but we’re beginning to realize that rocks played an absolutely
fundamental role in the origin of life. Hazen is out to expose a secret
relationship between rocks and life that helped drive both the origin of life and
its evolution into complex creatures. This is a very new set of understandings
and the more we look, the more we see that life depends on rocks, rocks depend
on life. This has been going on for four billion
years. As a geologist, it’s no surprise that Hazen is searching for answers
written in stone. But is he right? Are rocks the missing spark of life? The history of Earth is unimaginably
long. If it were sped up to the equivalent of
a single day, all of humankind from the earliest skeletons to the invention of
the iphone would have occurred in only the last four seconds. Dinosaurs were still roaming earth about
20 minutes before that, but the creation of our planet occurred
more than 23 hours earlier, two cycles on this clock or 4.5 billion years ago. Comprehending Earth’s vast history is a
formidable task. It is four and a half billion years of change, but you can
divide it into half a dozen ways of describing Earth through time. Bob Hazen has come up with another way
to visualize Earth’s long history that reveals this special relationship
between rocks and life. He has divided it into six stages, each
represented by a different color to understand how we ended up with green
earth, the planet we now know, requires us to turn the clock back to before there
was any life at all. Stage one was the creation of black
Earth. Back in Morocco, Hazen and Adam Aaronson, a
meteorite expert, seek out a small rock from the beginning of our cosmos. -Wow look at this pile here.
-yeah. These are meteorites. Rocks that have fallen from space. -This is Tamta. This is the one that fell
20 kilometers up the road from here. People saw it fall. A recent meteorite fall in Siberia was
captured in videos that have shown up on Youtube. Other space rocks have ended up
for sale here in Morocco. -Say you’d buy this without doing tests… -I’ll drop the
cash right now here and give me a good price. Meteorites here can sell for tens of thousands of dollars. That
may seem a steep price for a lump of rock, but these are some of the very
oldest objects in our solar system. This is the oldest object you could ever
hold in your hand. It’s 4.6 billion years old and is formed before Earth formed.
This is the very first solid material, the very first rock in our solar system
and these came together to build all the planets. Our Earth was created out of the rocks and
dust present at the start of our solar system. Over time, small fragments of orbiting
rock collided, coming together into the planet circling the Sun. At first, Earth was molten with
temperatures in the thousands of degrees, but in the cold vacuum of space this hot
rock began to cool and change. Nothing. Not a speck of dust is believed to have
survived from the period of black Earth. It was a hellishly unpleasant time. Volcanoes spewed hot lava from deep
inside the planet. When it cooled, it covered Earth with its
first rock called basalt and it was black. It seems like a desolate landscape, but
some ingredients that life will need are already here in these rocks. Look inside and you begin to understand
how intriguing even an ordinary rock is. Every rock, you slice it open you look inside, there’s something
special. Rocks are made up mostly of minerals, which are crystals like quartz or diamonds. Looking through a microscope at super thin slices of a rock lets you
see its mineral composition. This is the rock Peridotite, made up of
small crystals, including olivine and pyroxene. Even a simple black basalt rock,
spewed from a volcano, becomes a patchwork of colorful minerals. It’s sort of like a fruitcake, you know I
slice it open, there’s nuts and there’s dried fruit and maybe some lemon peel. It’s made of lots of little things
and it is not until you slice into that fruitcake that you see all the stuff inside that
makes it special. What makes them special is not only
their beauty. Minerals have remarkable chemical and physical properties and are
a source of many of the elements – nature’s building blocks. That is why they are essential in our
modern world to make everything from skyscrapers taller – mobile phones smaller. Extract the element molybdenum from the
mineral molybdenite to make steel stronger. Or add a pinch of cobalt and your iphone
battery will last longer. Minerals are the fundamental building
block of societies. We wouldn’t have televisions, we wouldn’t have automobiles,
we wouldn’t have buildings without the mineral riches that we have. So, were the remarkable chemical
properties of minerals also key in creating life? If so, Earth would mean more than it
started with It’s estimated that the meteorites that
formed Earth had only about 250 minerals, sort of a chemical starter kit,
containing many of the elements. Then, in the intense heat and pressures in the creation of our planet, new minerals began to form. This changed the appearance of our Earth from black to gray. Yosemite national park is a relatively
new piece of Earth, but the kind of rock that makes up these
dramatic cliffs goes back much further. These huge walls are granite containing
minerals like quartz and feldspar. Granite became the foundation of our
continents, leading Earth into the gray period. At this point, earth is still a long way
from the glorious diversity of plants and animals that makes Yosemite so
picturesque. But the stage is set for the next
character in our planet story: Water, which will turn Earth blue. Water
plays a central role in every model for the origin of life. That’s because water is such a great
solvent. All these different kinds of molecules can be floating around the
water and then they have the potential to interact together. The starting point is
the water. So when did Earth cool enough to have
liquid water, this element key to life? One of the biggest unknowns in this
whole idea of going from black to gray to a blue water-covered earth, is how
quickly it happened. The timing is a big mystery. The Pilbara in Western Australia is one
of the oldest places on Earth and so, one of the best places to solve
the mystery of the planet’s first oceans. Hazen joins an all-star team of
geologists, including Martin Van Kranendonk from the University of New South
Wales and John Valley of the University of Wisconsin. Valley is collecting rocks that could
hold clues to when water first appeared. We could get zircons and other
minerals that date all the way back to 4.4 billion years old. Hopefully. Some rocks here contain sand-sized
grains that wheathered from even older rocks. one in a million, literally, is a crystal
called zircon, one of the longest lasting materials in nature. Zircon is a popular gemstone, but the
microscopic zircon found here is even more precious. Zircon crystals are especially amazing. Gemstone zircons of course are valued, but these tiny ones the geologists value are microscopic that make a lousy ring, but they tell an incredible story. To tell that story, John Valley must
first find the tiny crystals, the ultimate needle in a haystack. If you want to find a needle in a
haystack, the first thing you do is you burn down the haystack. Then you sip through the ash to look for the needle. Rocks are pulverized into sand sized grains and sorted by weight in a machine developed to pan for gold. The gold that Valley is looking for are
heavy zircon crystals which get channeled into different tracks. Then, grain by grain, with a very steady
hand, thousands of small crystals are sorted
and analyzed. The chemical structure of a zircon crystal holds evidence of both the environment and the age when it formed. Some of these tiny crystals go very far
back, just over a hundred million years after
Earth formed. They are the oldest pieces of Earth ever discovered. So they could shed light on what our
young planet looked like. It’s totally amazing. To hold this
grain of sand in the palm of your hand is literally to see back through time. It is a time machine. Valley expected these crystal time
machines would confirm the long-held view that the young Earth was covered in
molten lava, still cooling after its violent formation. I think the zircon on the left looks
very promising. So what he discovered was shocking,
because this type of zircon created 4.3 billion years ago could only have formed
in the presence of liquid water. But how could there be water if Earth
was still hot and hell-like? The implications were that the early Earth
had water, it was cooler and it was wet. It’s starting to look very much more
familiar. And if water is a key starting point for
life could there be life that early too? The science of the zircon is telling us
that the Earth for a very, very long time was a habitable environment, not
necessarily that there was life then. We don’t know that yet, but there’s no
reason why there couldn’t have been life as early as 4.3 billion years ago. So, if life were possible that early, it
begs the question: how did life begin? In 1871, Charles Darwin speculated in a
letter to a friend that a warm little pond might be life’s birthplace. A warm soup of chemicals bathed by
energy from the Sun would have been, well, comfortable for molecules to come
together in new ways and create life. Darwin was way, way ahead of his time. A nice little warm soup is gonna get you
a long way. Jeff Boda of the Scripps Institution of
Oceanography in San Diego has spent his career working to understand the early
Earth’s soup of chemicals. He began under the direction of perhaps
the most famous scientist in origin of life research, Stanley Miller. There are in the history of science
turning points where we suddenly see the history of Earth and life differently. In
the early nineteen fifties, Stanley Miller, the eager graduate student, and
Harold Urey, the Nobel Prize winning mentor at the University of Chicago
conducted this astonishing experiment where they made an early Earth
environment. It looks like this sort of a
Frankenstein type apparatus, but actually it’s a very carefully thought out design.
Boda sets up a modern-day test of the nineteen fifties experiment on Miller’s
original lab equipment. One flask contains water. That’s to
simulate the ocean. The other flask has just got the gases in it,
so this is the atmosphere. Just as it does in nature, water from the
ocean evaporates and rises into the atmosphere, where it condenses and
returns to the ocean. Miller simulated what he believed to be
the atmosphere of early Earth with different gases like ammonia and methane. Then he added a spark of genius. Miller and Urey decided to use a spark
to simulate lightning, because that’s such a ubiquitous process in the
atmosphere of the Earth. That was the real inspiration. These
little electric sparks that acted like simulated lightning. The energy from the
spark of lightning breaks down the gas and water molecules so they can undergo further chemical reactions. To their astonishment, when they turn this apparatus on, after only a couple of days, you started seeing this pink color
developing. In a few more days, black oily goo is forming around the
electrodes. The electrodes get covered with new
substances. Organic compounds, usually associated with life. And it wasn’t just any organic compound. It was amino acids that make proteins, the ingredients for life. Amino acids are the building blocks of
life. They form proteins, which are the key
component of muscles and other tissues. People thought “aha!”. This is a key step in the origin of life. And you really believe that you can bring life to the dead? That body is not dead, it has never lived. I created it. The experiment raised a fear that a
Frankenstein creation, like in this classic film, was just around the corner. People were saying they had made
Frankenstein in a test tube. Had Miller and Urey cooked up life in a
test tube? many of the news headlines were saying “life created in the laboratory”, “life created in a test tube”. Of course, that was wrong. The real news was, he made these
compounds that are part of life. By creating amino acids, the Miller-Urey experiment seemed to confirm that Darwin was right. Life must have begun in a shallow pond. But then, 24 years later, a shocking discovery radically challenged that idea. On a dark ocean floor, more than a mile
below the surface, explorers found hot, mineral rich
hydrothermal vents, like underwater volcanoes. Temperatures reached more than 600
degrees and yet here, life was thriving. Not off the Sun’s
energy, but through chemical energy from the vents. No one realized that life could thrive
without sunlight. Here you have this extreme temperature and extreme pressure and so you have to shift your perceptions and realize that just
because it’s extreme to us doesn’t mean it’s extreme to those microbes. Instead of the warm shallow pond, could this dark and unlikely environment
be where life began? To answer that, Hazen decided to try creating life’s
building blocks in the conditions of a deep-sea vent. My first thought was “why don’t we
do a Miller-Urey experiment but do it at high temperature, high pressures?” Hazen’s laboratory is at the Carnegie Institution for Science, which is famous
for experiments that simulate the intense pressures deep inside Earth with
powerful tools called pressure bombs. They’re called bombs for a reason,
because things can explode. Hazen and his colleagues adapted these
pressure bombs to model the environment of the deep sea vents in a small gold
tube. What they discovered came as a surprise. Nothing happened. You can take basic
gases. Nitrogen, CO2, maybe some sulfur compounds, you can mix those, you can put them in a gold tube,
you can heat them up, you don’t get much much that is very interesting. Simply squeezing and heating the
ingredients had little effect. Hazen was missing the spark like in the
Miller-Urey experiment. The thing that kick-starts the chemistry. So he said, what’s going on?
What’s different? Well, look at the natural environment.
There is all these rocks and minerals. Let’s try putting some rocks and
minerals in. They recreate the early Earth cocktail,
but this time grind in powder from rocks and minerals. But will Hazen’s beloved rocks do the
trick? They run the experiment again. And this time, the atoms reform into new
organic molecules, including amino acids. As soon as you put powdered rocks and
minerals into the gold capsules then all sorts of really amazing things started
happening. You made organic molecules, they became
more stable, they lasted longer, and it really pointed us in the direction of “aha”,
this has got to be part of the story. While scientists still argue if life
began in shallow ponds or deep sea vents, both sides wonder what part of the story did rocks and minerals play? One possible answer may be found in
London in the powerful properties of mud. Most people will be familiar with
the material. It’s very gungy. That’s a British word that refers to something which is soft and unpleasant generally. Peter Coveney of University College, London is busy playing in mud at a very sophisticated
level. He has created powerful computer
simulations that can track the precise movement of up to 10 million atoms. Mud can contain clay, which is made up of
some of Earth’s most common minerals. What makes it so gungy, and perhaps
essential in the origin of life, can be seen deep in its atomic makeup. You can see
here the basic structure of any play is comprised of a large number of stacked
sheets like a deck of cards. Sheets of clay have spaces between them that fill
up with water and other molecules. These extensive surface areas can help
create more complex molecules, potentially even RNA, an essential part
of life’s genetic code One of the most challenging questions in
the origin of life is how we get from the simple building blocks to the
complicated structures we know are fundamental to living systems. Clays provide a clear mechanism for
achieving that. These simulations show that the secret
to clay lies in its surfaces. The surfaces of these minerals are
incredible. They do all sorts of chemical tricks. Hazen says minerals like clays
illustrate a fascinating aspect of chemistry, because the surface where
reactions take place can be as important as the ingredients themselves. The most exquisite chemistry occurs at surfaces Your body, your cells are almost entirely
surfaces on which chemistry takes place So when we think about the origin of
life, the minerals is where we place surfaces you have in your body that do that
chemical work. We are finally beginning to understand
the secret role minerals could have played in life’s origin. They provided some of the ingredients.
And surfaces, where important chemical reactions take place. So, when in Hazen’s color phases did all
this happen? One of the best places to figure that
out is back in Australia where Hazen and team are now searching for signs of
Earth’s earliest life. I can’t believe these rocks are three
and a half billion years old. They would maybe form last week. Martin Van Kranendonk leads the team
to a very unusual rock formation. You get your eye casting up. You see them all
wrinkly, laminated, black and then if you look a bit further back, you see a
very large domical structure. There is no obvious way that a chemical or physical
process would form that. Exactly. These strange shapes are fossilized
remnants of life, called stromatolites, beautifully preserved in these ancient
rocks. This is an amazing spot. We’re actually looking down on the
surface of the ancient Earth here. This was the seafloor 3.4 billion years
ago. I can see it in action, it is like a snap
frozen in an instant of time. But billions of years have taken their toll. To really understand stromatolites, we
have to go nearly 800 miles away. David Flannery, a geologist, has come to
Shark Bay in search of their very distant descendants. Just below the
surface, he finds a series of round, black
mounts – living stromatolites. Modern environments like these they’re very rare, but they are really the
key to interpreting what we see in the very early fossil record. Without environments like these,
we wouldn’t know how stromatolites were built. Stromatolites are
something like coral, a hard mineral structure that has been built, layer by
layer. A closer look reveals the builders: Microbes – single-celled life. The living part of a stromatolite is
only the surface. With a living microbial mat that is building up the
structure layer by layer, less than a millimeter per year. The top layer of these stromatolites is
alive with microbes that perform a remarkable trick. They capture minerals
and sand in the water and biologically cement them, layer by layer, into the
solid mounds. The results can be seen in Shark Bay
today and in the ancient fossils. Let me introduce you to this
outcrop. It’s just spectacular to be able to see this. And this outcrop
is unique. Van Kranendonk has dated this stromatolite to 3.5 billion years ago. This is the very oldest fossil of life
on Earth. We all want to know where we come from,
where life originated, how long ago in what form and this is the oldest direct
evidence we have for life on Earth. But while stromatolites are the earliest
fossil of life we’ve found that does not make them the very first living thing. In fact, Van Kranendonk thinks that by the time stromatolite appeared, life’s party
was already in full swing. There are whole communities and colonies that are
building fantastically complex structures. So, we’ve actually come in pretty late to
the game, there’s a lot that’s gone on before us to get to this stage. And it’s
this complexity that tells us that life probably originated on Earth very early. So if these very early fossils are too
complex to be the oldest form of life, is it possible to find something earlier? That is what Ruth Blake, a geologist at
Yale University, is trying to figure out. By turning to the geological equivalent
of a crime scene investigation. The crime has been committed, the
criminals gone, but they’ve left behind some indicators, because they’ve changed
their environment. Blake is analyzing some of the oldest
rocks on Earth, like this ground up one from Greenland that formed at the bottom
of an ocean She’s looking for a chemical signature
of life, left by microbes, including bacteria. What we start with is our ocean, trapped
in a rock, and our file signature is somewhere in here. We have to get it out. In the lab, Blake and her team dissolve these rocks and extract molecules that
are the chemical signature left behind by ancient microbes. Old life, like these microbes, consumes
nutrients to produce energy. The leftovers carry the chemical
footprint of life. Even today, we humans leave behind
chemical footprints. When we breathe, for example, we’re taking
in oxygen and we are exhaling CO2 and water vapor And water vapor interacts with your
environment. Amazingly, rocks from 3.5 billion years ago,
at the time of the stromatolites in Australia, also carry a strong chemical footprint
of life. But when Blake analyzes the Greenland
rocks from 300 million years earlier, she makes a tantalizing discovery. As far back as 3.5 billion years, we see
a strong biological signature and the older rocks are approaching that, but not
quite there, but we do believe that we see something there. Blake believes she has detected the faint
signal of life at 3.8 billion years ago, only 700 million years after Earth was
created, early in the blue phase. There is still much that we don’t know
about our early planet, but some things are becoming clearer. If you could transport yourself back in
time, about 4 billion years, parts of our earth
might not look too different than this Southern California beach minus the surfers
and Google. You could stand on cliffs, probably of granite,
overlooking oceans that were increasingly rich with minerals and early microbial life. But you would quickly die in a great deal of pain, suffocating in the heavy atmosphere,
rich in nitrogen and carbon dioxide, but lacking in life-giving free oxygen. Then, something truly astonishing
happened. Those harmless-looking microbes, floating
in the water or on stromatolites, started to change everything, turning
Earth red. Wow! Oh my god, this is amazing! There aren’t many places on Earth you can
see something like this. A remnant of red Earth can be seen in Australia at the
Hammersley Basin in Karijini national park. In these rocks, Hazen finds a
startling consequence of early life as it began to thrive and evolve. What we’re seeing here is one of the
greatest tricks that life ever figured out. And that was how to take sunlight and
convert it to energy. Microbes, like those in the stromatolites at Shark Bay, eventually began to live off the Sun’s energy through photosynthesis. That led to a dramatic rise in a gas
that Earth was not accustomed to. Oxygen. While to us, oxygen is a life-giving
benign gas, to a world not accustomed to it, oxygen created a dangerously corrosive cocktail. The early oceans were filled with dissolved iron. The new oxygen reacted with that iron and it began to rust and sank to the bottom of the sea. These little microbes they’re
microscopic things and you wouldn’t think they could do all that much, but when
they produce that oxygen, the oxygen reacts with the iron in the oceans. You
get the world’s largest deposits of iron, thousands of feet, covering hundreds of
square miles. these formations cover a vast area with
trillions of tons of iron ore. That is an unimaginable consequence of trillions
upon trillions of microbes breathing. it’s a fundamental change in the
chemistry of Earth. It’s the consequence of the rise of
oxygen. The rise in oxygen that rusted iron and sent Earth into the red phase also created many new minerals As a mineralogist, when I look at Earth’s
history, I see big transitions. I see the moon-forming impact, I see the formation
of oceans and so forth. Then nothing, nothing matches what life and oxygen did
to create new minerals. Some estimate that the meteorites that
formed Earth began with only about 250 minerals. Today, there are more than 5,000. Hazen believes that two-thirds of all
the minerals that now make up our planet, were created by the introduction of
oxygen and most of that was in turn created by life. It’s mind-boggling. Rocks create life,
life creates rocks, they’re intertwined in ways that are just now coming into
focus. But the road ahead for life and for
rocks would not be easy As we head into the next phase of Earth,
new continents formed and broke apart which may have created dramatic extremes
in the climate. Earth plunged into an icy freeze, turning it white. In these frozen conditions, life was
nearly wiped out. Fortunately, active volcanoes still
poke through the icy veneer, billowing out carbon dioxide, or CO2. Like a thermal blanket around our Earth,
this kept heat in and rescued life. Life all but shut down and then the CO2
rises and rises and the greenhouse effect gets hotter and hotter and suddenly the
planet melts. Cycles of these snowball hothouse conditions had profound consequences for life One result was more oxygen, which
eventually allowed for bigger animals The dramatic changes during white Earth
would bring us to the present phase, starting about 540 million years ago. A living planet. Filled with diverse plants and
spectacular creatures. But those life forms are pitted against
each other in a survival of the fittest. And rocks can make the difference
between life and death. That struggle can be seen back in Morocco at
the edge of the anti Atlas Mountains. Here, Bob Hazen and Adam Aaronsen are
looking for evidence of an evolutionary trick that shows, once again, how life and
rocks took a big leap forward together. 520 million years ago, this valley was a
shallow ocean, filled with new forms of life. This is when the diversity of life on
Earth exploded, all thriving in a living sea. So, if you were a scuba diver, and you dove
down to this reef, you’d see all kinds of life swimming around. It would be really amazing, probably very
colorful too. There is one creature that dominates
this ancient reef that Hazen wants to find. Nothing there, nothing there, and nothing there. Fossil hunting is a game of luck and
persistence but it doesn’t take long for Hazen to strike geologic gold. Whoa! Geez, look at that! That is amazing. The trilobite. Hey look,
there’s another head there, and a head there. Two more. Boy, this is rich rock. The trilobites here are amazing because these are the oldest animals that you can find. They’re preserved as what you think of as a fossil that you can hold in your hand. Some trilobites were like horseshoe crabs, scurrying about the ocean floor. The reason they are found as fossils
today, is because they developed an astonishing evolutionary trick: Shells. Trilobite shells were made of calcium
carbonate, the same mineral found in limestone, the rock that built the
pyramids. In effect, life itself began to make rocks
for its own advantage. And the idea went viral. If you had a shell, you’re gonna survive a
lot longer than that soft body animal that doesn’t have a shell. The trilobite had an advantage. It’s
survival of the fittest. The trilobites’ mineral shell heralded
a new phase in the evolution of animals, catapulting our planet into the present
stage: Green Earth. One that is rich in diverse life. From humans back to trilobites, we owe our evolution and survival to the
world of minerals. With shells, then eventually with bones and teeth that
paved the way for life to grow taller and stronger. All are evidence of life co-opting minerals for its own
evolutionary advantage. We’ve thought for centuries animals,
minerals, they’re separate kingdoms, right? But it turns out they overlap, they’re
intertwined, they co-evolved, that life makes minerals and minerals has led to
new life forms. You can’t separate the two. Life and rocks are totally intertwined
through billions of years of Earth history. One of Hazen’s favorite places to see
this intertwined history of life and minerals is at the Calvert cliffs
along the Chesapeake Bay He and his wife Margy pick up shells
and sharp teeth from a time 18 million years ago, when massive sea creatures
swam here. That’s nice. You find teeth
along the beach that are five, six, sometimes seven inches long with
serrated edges, razor-sharp teeth. These were immense creatures. Sharks that
may have been 50 or 60 feet long. These giants of the sea would have
dwarfed today’s great whites and it was the bones and teeth, created with minerals, that enabled them to grow so large and powerful. They were feeding on whales. Dolphins
would have been a snack. They are just one small part of a story
of coevolution, stretching back to Earth’s beginning. The life, the rocks. It’s all part of the
same story. Step by step throughout Earth’s
evolution, minerals and life have sparked chemical reactions that sculpted the
planet into what we see today. And helped create the life we know. At this place you get a sense of the immensity of time and the constancy of change. Life is creating and sculpting our surroundings in ways that are quite wonderful, and just to recognize the power of life
to transform a planet. Of course, humans transform the planet too. We
build cities, we build roads, we change the composition of the atmosphere and
change the composition of the oceans. There are going to be global changes. These changes, whose consequences are now beginning to unfold, are the latest chapter in Earth’s epic
story. A story that began four and a half billion years ago with a rock.

100 Comments

  • Gary Bell

    FUTILE: "What makes you think I don't know the origins of life, Bell?" I'm certain that you've been totally convinced by the priesthood that you do know the origins of life, just like Ken Ham, Ray Comfort, Stephen Meyer, William Lane Craig and James Tour. The problem is that faith based religious beliefs aren't science, aren't backed by any evidence, can never be demonstrated and are contradicted by every other version of religious mythology.

  • May Ling

    The origin of our universe
    Several comments, a few of them rational, but most of them just ridiculous attempts here to pose rhetorical and "got you" questions and make absurd statements. True to form, the dumbest questions/statements are made by the most uneducated creationist. For those who are interested in a rational reply, let me quote from John C Mather, a Nobel prize recipient in physics.

    How could this entire observable universe fit into that little bitty ball? Mather said, “Well, number one, space is almost completely empty. Stars are extremely far apart. We cannot imagine any way currently available to get to the nearest one, besides the sun…. Next, atoms are almost completely empty. The atomic nuclei are tiny compared to the size of atoms. And if you squeeze hard enough on the particles of an atom, they come apart and are made of even smaller things called quarks."

    “So you can imagine taking the entire universe, running the movie backwards, squeezing and squeezing and squeezing until it mushes into the size of a golf ball.” At that point, said Mather, he is not sure what the ball would be like, because the laws of nature and physics would no longer apply. “It’s a great mystery and not one we will answer today.”
    https://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0709/origins.html

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    HOW DARE LEONARDO DA VINCI EVEN BOTHER WITH THE IDEA OF FLIGHT
    MAN WILL NEVER ….EVER…. FLY EVEN IF HE SPENDS HUNDREDS OF YEARS TRYING.
    I DEMAND SCIENCE STOP NOW.🛑

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ Goodfellow: "From the various zillions upon zillions protocells" …you have no evidence from the field that any of these protocells even existed, how's that for common sense, Goodfellow?

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    I DEMAND SCIENCE STOP IT'S RESEARCH.🛑
    IT MAKES MY UNEDUCATED CULT LOOK LIKE THE FOOLS THEY ARE.
    ….
    MY PEDOPHILE CULT TOOK ALL MY WELFARE MONEY THIS MONTH.

  • Typical Stupid Christian

    "What a nonsensical idea. Flight is reserved for the birds and the angels."

    – Bishop Milton Wright,
    in response to a collage professor who claimed that humans would fly in few years, before the first powered flight by his two sons.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ Gary Bell: "Tour totally destroyed his own credibility and he'll no longer contribute anything to any field of science, if he ever did to start with." What a load of horse shit, Bell. James Tour's credibility isn't even remotely in question. Let's look at his Awards from Wikipedia, Bell:
    "Tour was inducted into the National Academy of Inventors in 2015.[41] He was named among "The 50 most Influential Scientists in the World Today" by TheBestSchools.org in 2014.[42] Tour was named "Scientist of the Year" by R&D Magazine in 2013.[43] Tour won the ACS Nano Lectureship Award from the American Chemical Society in 2012. Tour was ranked one of the top 10 chemists in the world over the past decade by Thomson Reuters in 2009. That year, he was also made a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Other notable awards won by Tour include the 2008 Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology, the NASA Space Act Award in 2008 for his development of carbon nanotube reinforced elastomers, the Arthur C. Cope Scholar Award from the American Chemical Society (ACS) for his achievements in organic chemistry in 2007, the Small Times magazine's Innovator of the Year Award in 2006, the Southern Chemist of the Year Award from ACS in 2005, the Honda Innovation Award for Nanocars in 2005, the NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award in 1990, and the Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Award in 1989. In 2005, Tour's journal article "Directional Control in Thermally Driven Single-Molecule Nanocars" was ranked the Most Accessed Journal Article by the American Chemical Society.[44] Tour has twice won the George R. Brown Award for Superior Teaching at Rice University in 2007 and 2012. In 2016, Tour was listas as an ISI highly cited researcher.[45]"

  • Gary Bell

    Paragon of Virtue infers that Allah dunit, Stephen Meyer's ID infers that Yahweh dunit, FUTILE infers that a supreme universal intelligent extradimensional thingy dunit and each personal belief based on no evidence whatsoever is meaningless to all fields of science or to any rational adult conversation. Just ask how these religious nuts know what exists in extra dimensions, how they know what's universal or not, how they know what existed before space, time and matter and you'll hear nothing other than 12 angry posts of parroted repetitive spam to hide their own embarrassment.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ Enlightened: "Apparently, a prebiotic Earth under the fundamental forces of nature managed to do all those things – otherwise, we wouldn't be here." Affirming the Consequent argument fallacy:
    P1: If X, then Y.
    P2: Y.
    C: Therefore, X.

    How dense are you, really? You REALLY don't deserve to use the name, 'enlightened.' It should be UNENLIGHTENED.

  • Gary Bell

    All forces, processes and events are natural FUTILE, this is why you can't name, cite or explain anything anywhere in the universe that isn't. When confronted with reality you have to run with your goalposts to YouTube comments, how does a hog decide to roll in shit or your stupid brainless dreams of being superhuman. This is why you have to worship human ignorance and parrot logical fallacies day in and day out. You're making yourself angry without even realising what you're doing.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ Gary Bell: Not all of reality is natural forces, Bell. The informational content of your drivel is real, so is the decision to post it, yet no natural force can be ascribed to the source either of these.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ Gary Bell: "if we have "2,558,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000" chemical reactions happening every second planetwide then the origin of life will occur relatively quickly" …and yet NONE OF THEM in a prebiotic Earth could even synthesize a single ATP synthase, or a ribosome, or a double helix DNA, or a phospholipid bilayer.
    YOU, Bell, are addicted to 🌈 MAGICAL THINKING. 🦄

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    ​@ jebstuart: "And what makes you think an entire universe was "shrunk, squished" etc into a singularity?" And your own personal, alternate explanation must surely be that it just ✨ magically 💥showed up one day all on its own, Stuart? Explain your egregious error.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ Enlightened: "That's not affirming the consequent" It sure is, and I've laid it out perfectly:
    P1: If X, then Y. "If the fundamental forces of nature started life on Earth (X), then we should be here today (Y)."
    P2: Y. "We are here today."
    C: Therefore, X. "Therefore the fundamental forces of nature started life on Earth."
    You're anything BUT enlightened. You're merely logically fallacious.

    (Original post: "Apparently, a prebiotic Earth under the fundamental forces of nature managed to do all those things – otherwise, we wouldn't be here.")

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    When Gary Bell isn't asking retarded, asinine questions, he's lying. And when on rare occasions he isn't lying, he's hurling insults and other assorted abuse.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ Enlightened: "we can reach a valid conclusion that the universe was once much smaller and much hotter than it is today – so much so that it was condensed into a gravitational singularity" And now you will define the natural process(es) responsible for constructing the initial singularity, a universe-sized amount of energy, into a space the size of a grain of sand. And do so, knowing that time supposedly hadn't even started yet.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ jebstuart: "You're saying the universe was once big, but someone "squoze it REAL tight" and such?" Maybe yes, maybe no, but our universe DID come out of an initial singularity about the size of a grain of sand, comprende? And, shockingly, Stuart, I have the right to ask how that initial singularity came to be that way. What isn't shocking is how MORTALLY TERRIFIED YOU ARE that I'm actually posing such questions. Nice.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    "Very sad, behind this sock account is a poor soul with rejection complex, using profane language to make up for loveless, possibly abusive childhood, and the barren solitude of his meager scraping through life drives his mind into insanity."_
    – Dancho Konstantinov's best of the best on Devilmonkey's impostor sock account of me

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ jebstuart: " but don't accept that the universe as we know it, has to have been squoze in to a dot." And yet that's how it started, you twit, from the size of a grain of sand! And something unimaginably powerful must surely have been needed, supposedly operating outside of time, to condense a universe-sized amount of energy into that small space, Stuart.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ jebstuart: "but don't accept that the universe as we know it, has to have been squoze (sic) in to a dot." And yet that's how it started, you twit, from the size of a grain of sand! And something unimaginably powerful must surely have been needed, supposedly operating outside of time, to condense a universe-sized amount of energy into that small space, Stuart.

  • jebstuart

    "the unimaginably powerful force that would surely have been needed to take a UNIVERSE SIZED mass of matter and energy and collapse it…" REASONING IS FUTILE
    Nature is pretty unimaginably powerful. And what makes you think an entire universe was "shrunk, squished" etc into a singularity? Is it possible you can't imagine any alternative, so you equate a universal concept to how your mommy packed your school lunch?

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    AS A CHRISTIAN FUNDIE
    I'M REQUIRED TO LIE FOR JESUS.
    AND TO MAKE SCIENCE STOP ITS RELENTLESS JOURNEY OF DISCOVERY.
    DON'T YOU PREFER MAGIC CHANTS AND NOT KNOWING ?

  • jebstuart

    ME : Here's a suggestion – come up with a tiny iota of evidence for any alternative (to abiogenesis). Just an idea."
    REASONING IS FUTILE : "You're bluffing, Stuart"
    Are the meds not subsidized any more miss? Here's another suggestion – try to make sense. Arguments are always more interesting when you have a point.

  • jebstuart

    ME : Here's a suggestion – come up with a tiny iota of evidence for any alternative (to abiogenesis). Just an idea."
    REASONING IS FUTILE : "You're bluffing, Stuart"
    Are the meds not subsidized any more miss? Here's another suggestion – try to make sense. Arguments are always more interesting when you have a point.

  • jebstuart

    " What isn't shocking is how MORTALLY TERRIFIED YOU ARE that I'm actually posing such questions. Nice" REASONING IS FUTILE

    I'm just concerned with the imbalance in your demands miss. Your sneering disapproval of anyone who rejects your unsupported claims and your disbelief that anyone thinks otherwise. All you claim to need is a "rational inference" while everyone else needs to "Lay out the chemical pathways from the prebiotic…." All you have is an on-the-spot fallacy to prop up your trolling, and you think you're being victimized by any who point this out? Hilarious.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    AS A FUNDIE CHRISTIAN IN A WEEKLY CULT.
    I WON'T BE SATISFIED UNTIL WE HAVE A CHRISTIAN BASED UNDERSTANDING OF THE WORLD
    YOU REMEMBER IT BETTER AS THE DARK AGES

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ jebstuart: "but don't accept that the universe as we know it, has to have been squoze (sic) in to a dot." And yet that's how it started, you twit, from the size of a grain of sand! And something unimaginably powerful must surely have been needed, supposedly operating outside of time, to condense a universe-sized amount of energy into that small space, Stuart.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    ​@ jebstuart: "And what makes you think an entire universe was "shrunk, squished" etc into a singularity?" And your own personal, alternate explanation must surely be that it just ✨ magically 💥showed up one day all on its own, Stuart? Explain your egregious error.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ materialists: Ok, go ahead, then, and take the source of both the informational content of your post and the decision to post it.
    That source should be material, right? Then FIND IT AND MEASURE IT, please and thank you.
    You WILL include both your units of measurement AND the physicochemical formulae/equations that these units plug into.
    Then go and make scientific predictions using these formulas and equations, all must be natural, right?
    But if you can’t, then your mind – the very thing that you think with, decide with, value with, experience qualia with, and know to be
    your sentient self – must – rationally – be considered to actually be beyond the material, beyond matter and energy!
    And the mind is therefore NOT a natural phenomena, you have NO natural explanation for it, and your materialistic world view is fundamentally menaced. Nice.

  • Amit kumar

    The ancient Vedic rishis in all their wisdom said as early as 8000 BC , that our universe is not woven from  matter but consciousness .
    There are connections between quantum mechanics and consciousness . Consciousness is the intelligence, the organising principle behind the arising of form. The quantum field or pure consciousness is influenced by intention and desire.
    As per quantum physics things do not exist in its physical form, unless they are observed by a conscious observer.

    In every experiment when an observer expected energy to behave as a particle, it did so. When he thought it would probably be wave-like, it was. And when observers believed it might start out as one form and end up as another, it did so. 

    This means ,nothing actually exists in its physical form until observed by someone, was adopted by the group as one of the concepts.  You created them by your expectations and your thoughts of what should be. In every situation in your life, including the wealth or lack of it you choose to attract to you. 

    Thanks to the theory of ERP Quantum Entanglement, originally asserted by Albert Einstein and two fellow scientists , Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, we now have proof that what Vedanta had been saying for 9000 years is true.We are all connected. We are all One, sharing a consciousness with the entire universe, perhaps even many universes. 
    Don't compare Vedas to other religion book .Vedas are only for human and have scientific facts , cosmology , advance math , quantum physics , astro physics all top scientist including einstein, shrodinger , heisenberg, Oppenheimer etc read vedanta as scientific book and get knowledge form it for there scientific research
    Veda never tell about any sects , cast and religion …only told about Dharma .

  • Dancho Konstantinov

    Enjoy during  your break from scientific discoveries !   https://vk.com/public51488060
    #казаки #казакдонспорттв #станицаАлександровскаяРостовнаДону

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    I HAVE DELUSIONS AND PROBLEMS UNDERSTANDING REALITY.
    I INFER A WIZARD.
    BASED ON THE SECRETS ONLY KNOWN TO SQUIRRELS THAT LIVE IN MY BACKYARD.

  • Amit kumar

    Erwin Schrödinger wrote:
    This life of yours which you are living is not merely a piece of this entire existence,but in a certain sense the whole; only this whole is not so constituted that it can be surveyed in one single glance. This, as we know, is what the Brahmins express in that sacred, mystic formula which is yet really so simple and so clear: tat tvam asi, this is you. Or, again, in such words as “I am in the east and the west, I am above and below, I am this entire world.”

  • Amit kumar

    Schrodinger wrote:“Vedanta teaches that consciousness is singular, all happenings are played out in one universal consciousness and there is no multiplicity of selves.”“the stages of human development are to strive for Possession (Artha), Knowledge (Dharma), Ability (Kama), Being (Moksha)” “Nirvana is a state of pure blissful knowledge.. It has nothing to do with individual. The ego or its separation is an illusion. The goal of man is to preserve his Karma and to develop it further – when man dies his karma lives and creates for itself another carrier.”

    “In all world,” writes Schroedinger in his book My View of the World (chapter iv

  • Amit kumar

    There is no kind of framework within which we can find consciousness in the plural; this is simply something we construct because of the temporal plurality of individuals, but it is a false construction….The only solution to this conflict insofar as any is available to us at all lies in the ancient wisdom of the Upanishad.’

  • Amit kumar

    Erwin Schrödinger Quotes
    ‘The unity and continuity of Vedanta are reflected in the unity and continuity of wave mechanics. In 1925, the world view of physics was a model of a great machine composed of separable interacting material particles. During the next few years, Schrodinger and Heisenberg and their followers created a universe based on super imposed inseparable waves of probability amplitudes. This new view would be entirely consistent with the Vedantic concept of All in One’

    ‘Vedanta teaches that consciousness is singular, all happenings are played out in one universal consciousness and there is no multiplicity of selves.’

    ‘Nirvana is a state of pure blissful knowledge.. It has nothing to do with individual. The ego or its separation is an illusion. The goal of man is to preserve his Karma and to develop it further – when man dies his karma lives and creates for itself another carrier.’

    ‘There is no kind of framework within which we can find consciousness in the plural; this is simply something we construct because of the temporal plurality of individuals, but it is a false construction….The only solution to this conflict insofar as any is available to us at all lies in the ancient wisdom of the Upanishad.’

    ‘The multiplicity is only apparent. This is the doctrine of the Upanishads. And not of the Upanishads only. The mystical experience of the union with God regularly leads to this view, unless strong prejudices stand in the West.’

    ‘After the conversations about Indian philosophy, some of the ideas of Quantum Physics that had seemed so crazy suddenly made much more sense.’

    “Some blood transfusion from the East to the West” to save Western science from spiritual anemia.”

  • Amit kumar

    John wheeler….
    It is curious that people like Schroedinger, Niels Bohr, Oppenheimer and John Wheeler are Upanishad scholars.

  • Amit kumar

    At the Cern super collider in Switzerland, the dancing Shiva- Nataraja’s statue occupies pride of place.
    Shiva’s dance is the constant change or dance between a particle and wave or wave particle duality proven by the quantum Double Slit experiment.  
    Shiva has a drum tied to his trident which represents the big bang and origin or creation.
    There is a constant creation and destruction of matter from the void. The continuous flow of energy in and out of the material world is THE COSMIC DANCE OF SHIVA
    Colours exist only in our consciousness. Animals cannot see color,the way humans do. The electromagnetic wave spectrum is colourless.
    This constant non-stagnating change between black hole and quasar is the reason why the cosmos exists. 
    The dance of shiva is a perfect tango of dynamic balance. If the restraining equilibrium is lost, the universe will spin out of control.

  • Widowmaker

    i've seen this same user 'amit kumar' spam the same stuff on multiple science videos. reminds me of the tech support scammers, i wonder why

  • Immanuel Kan't

    haha pointedly asking science deniers for an alternative mechanism to explain first life is not a bluff. funny how the wagons circle when foreign vedic woo approaches. bluffing is what vedic pretenders do when insinuating ancient religions are somehow scientific.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    I infer an intelligent origin for the first living, metabolizing, dividing cell on Earth from the experimental E V I D E N C E which demonstrates DIPS (integrated digital information processing systems) in living cells, and from the problem solving capacities of EDMM (energy driven molecular machines) shown to exist in the cell. There is at present, however, no additional evidence available to infer the identity, methods, or intentions of that intelligence. Experimental evidence demonstrates that the cell is a paragon of digital information processing. It also demonstrates that the cell is a paragon of integrated energy powered machines.

    The design and implementation of these features that were necessary in the first living, metabolizing, dividing cell inexorably trace to an intelligent mind. No Bible needed, no magical appeal to blind prebiotic chemistry.

  • jebstuart

    Enlightened : "rationally following the best evidence and data"
    FUTILE : "But you HAVE NONE, you liar."
    Enlightened : https://www.docdroid.net/tv9RahF/list-of-evidence-for-abiogenesis.pdf You were saying?
    FUTILE : Cute list. Pick one, liar. Let's discuss. You'll lose. Every one. Guaranteed."
    I have seriously not laughed so hard and for so long in YEARS! She finally and unwittingly admits there is the evidence right there. And that icy cold threat of destruction if someone should dare to "pick one" to discuss is … well… hilarious beyond words. This is one for the ages. Will be printing it out and posting it in BIG FONT on a wall where I work.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    REMEMBER KIDS INTELLIGENT ORIGIN IS CODE WORD FOR 🧙‍♂️SKY WIZARD🧙‍♂️
    AND BY THAT🦄 I MEAN MAGIC🌈

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    REMEMBER KIDS BY INTELLIGENT ORIGIN ….
    I MEAN SKY WIZARD.🧙‍♂️
    PURE MAGICAL THINKING.
    JUST LIKE HARRY POTTER. IT'S BASED ON FANTASY

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    I SAY I HAVE EVIDENCE
    BUT ACTUALLY ALL I HAVE ARE LIES AND BRONZE AGE FAIRYTALES.
    …. I'M JUST YOUR TYPICAL DELUSIONAL CHRISTIAN.

  • Gary Bell

    Poor FUTILE still can't infer any anthropomorphic identities, methods or intentions onto natural events from flummoxed staring at biologists descriptions of natural cells. Perhaps she'd have more success at shoehorning religious woowoo into her own mind if cells weren't comprised of 100% naturally originated matter, using 100% natural energy sources and driven by 100% natural biochemical processes.

  • Gary Bell

    All the Christians at the DI are trying to do is to give their religious victims false hope that their ancient mythology can still survive when they feel so emotionally threatened by modernity, education, all fields of science, secular rule of law and rapidly diminishing church attendance.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    ME: “…and what put the primordial singularity together? You don't know, do you, Bell? Can you say 'infinite regress?'”

    Enlightened: “Even if that were the case, so what? The human mind is uncomfortable with the concept of infinity, but reality has no obligation to make us comfortable.”

    ME: Looks like ‘enlightened’ is fully behind concepts beyond the physical, beyond the human mind.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    ​@ Gary Bell: You make a good point, reminding us of how entrenched is the fear and intimidation you experience on a daily basis from all things religion, especially the Roman Catholic church. Poor old man Bell.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    Why would materialists continue post on this video day after day, living with the humiliation that abiogenesis can't ever be demonstrated?
    Do they like being embarrassed and kicked to the curb?

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ Enlightened: "That's not affirming the consequent" It sure is, and I've laid it out perfectly:

    P1: If X, then Y. "If the fundamental forces of nature started life on Earth (X), then we should be here today (Y)."

    P2: Y. "We are here today."

    C: Therefore, X. "Therefore the fundamental forces of nature started life on Earth."

    You're anything BUT enlightened. You're merely logically fallacious.

    (Original post: "Apparently, a prebiotic Earth under the fundamental forces of nature managed to do all those things – otherwise, we wouldn't be here.")

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    I WORSHIP A MAGIC WIZARD IN MY CULT.
    I EVEN MAKE UP CONVERSATIONS WITH MYSELF TO OVERCOME MY LONELINESS
    NOBODY WANTS TO LOVE A DELUSIONAL OLD BIPOLAR WOMAN.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    MY SKY WIZARD USES SPELLS HE LEARNED AT HOGWARTS SCHOOL OF MAGIC.
    ONLY SQUIRRELS AND COLONEL SANDERS KNOW THE SECRETE RECIPE.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    What would be an accurate assessment of every last OOL paper ever published? ”…more wild speculation leading to the eventual, predictable DEAD END." 😆 LOLOLOL!! 😝

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    WHY IS ORVILLE AND WILBUR WRIGHT TRYING TO FLY.
    PEOPLE HAVE BEEN WASTING THEIR TIME WITH THAT MAGICAL NONSENSE FOR HUNDREDS OF YEARS.
    IT WILL NEVER WORK.
    *I INFERRED IT*

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    This jackass impostor of me (below) blathering about, ” WHY IS ORVILLE AND WILBUR WRIGHT TRYING TO FLY. “ is a sock puppet of Devilmonkey.
    He is to be ignored and pitied.

  • jebstuart

    "In that case, I'll post it again. And again. And again." REASONING IS FUTILE.

    We know you will. Duh! That's what psychotic trolls who wish they had a successful career do.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    ”Worthless smack lobbed from the cheap seats are your last bastion of desperation when you've run out of arguments to make.”
    – Enlightened goes for the jugular in a debate

  • jebstuart

    Enlightened : "rationally following the best evidence and data"
    FUTILE : "But you HAVE NONE, you liar."
    Enlightened : https://www.docdroid.net/tv9RahF/list-of-evidence-for-abiogenesis.pdf You were saying?
    FUTILE : Cute list. Pick one, liar. Let's discuss. You'll lose. Every one. Guaranteed."
    I have seriously not laughed so hard and for so long in YEARS! I'm trying to think of a villainess from TV/movies who speaks like that.
    Still, she can no longer say there is "no evidence", just that IF SHE EVER read it, she "KNOWS" she can shred it with her "towering knowledge base". LOL, What a prankster.

  • jebstuart

    "Pick one liar" clearly means that your hapless team mate is lying about there being any evidence, Stuart" REASONING IS FUTILE.
    Maybe in Alice's Wonderland it might. Here on earth, it means you found the evidence and want someone to "pick one from the list" that's why you said "Pick one" Seriously miss, my sides, you have to have mercy…..

  • jebstuart

    "Let me know if you EVER want to come clean and admit that I'm a man"
    The burden of proof is a complete mystery to you isn't it, miss Maria Bonito? I made my rational inference, you've NEVER demonstrated I'm wrong, you continue to roll your eyes, call people "silly" sign off with "giggle" and give yourself women's names. Yet you seem ENORMOUSLY triggered by it all. I'm beginning to suspect you may not be playing with a full deck of cards, miss Manning…. LOLOLOLOL!

  • jebstuart

    "And so are you (a n imposter account). Whatever happened to matchlockfun?"
    I'll tell you yet again miss, as your memory is like that of a rice pudding on the turn. Youtube contacted me with concerns that you and your other fundie pal Zaki Aminu seemd to present a real physical threat. They made changes to my online security, and I changed my username. Neither name is an "imposter", unlike your army of imposters eg. Matchlock Fun, Trashtalk Funk, Ergo No Boober, Extant Frodo 2, Chocolate Covered Reason, etc etc etc.
    I just hope your imagined "audience" to this thread doesn't see all this miss – you'd be embarrassed. Maybe I'll post it again. And again. And again. LOLOLOLOLOLOL!

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ jebstuart: "And what makes you think an entire universe was "shrunk, squished" etc into a singularity?" And your own personal, alternate explanation must surely be that it just ✨ magically 💥showed up one day all on its own, Stuart? Explain your egregious error.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    So origin of life scientist Jack Szostak muses, "Is the existence of life on Earth a lucky fluke or an inevitable consequence of the laws of nature?" Same old, same old. Chance and necessity, the only two explanatory platforms we're supposedly allowed to consider, where a third option, intelligence, moves beyond that dichotomy but is prohibited by his a priori commitment to methodological naturalism. Sadly for Szostak and all hapless materialists, this a priori commitment to methodological naturalism is a philosophical stance. You all suffer from a glaring, fundamental inconsistency, in that it is not possible whatsoever to use the scientific method to demonstrate that only scientific thinking is the path to truth and meaning. Put another way, the one thing you cannot determine purely on scientific grounds is that only scientific truth is legitimate. That’s a philosophical position, not a scientific one.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    There is zero evidence of abiogenesis at the link: https://www.docdroid.net/tv9RahF/list-of-evidence-for-abiogenesis.pdf
    And you're terrified of the prospect of having to debate the contents of that pdf, Stuart.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    Time for another vigorous belly laugh at OOL investigators who “simulate early Earth conditions” when failing trying to demonstrate abiogenesis. Here’s the Enzyme Preparation from Robertson and Joyce’s paper Highly Efficient Self-Replicating RNA Enzymes (2014):
    “A library of DNA templates was prepared using standard phosphoramidite chemistry on an Applied Biosystems Expedite 8909 RNA/DNA synthesizer. (see Table S2 for all sequences). Following standard deprotection and purification by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), 1 nmol of the DNA library was mixed with 2 nmol of the primer for second-strand synthesis, which were heated at 70 °C for 3 min, then cooled to room temperature. The primer was extended using 10 U/μL MMLV reverse transcriptase (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) which was incubated at 42 °C for 1 h. A portion of the extended products (166 pmol = 1014 molecules) were transcribed in a mixture containing 15 U/μL T7 RNA polymerase, 0.001 U/μL inorganic pyrophosphatase (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), 5 mM each NTP, 25 mM MgCl2, 2 mM spermidine, 10 mM DTT, and 40 mM Tris (pH 7.9), which was incubated at 37 °C for 2 h. Then 0.5 U/μL DNase I (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, IN) was added and the mixture was incubated at 37 °C for an additional 1 h. The transcribed RNA was purified by PAGE and again treated with DNase, using 0.03 U/μL TURBO DNase (Life Technologies) in a mixture containing 10 mM MgCl2, 0.5 mM CaCl2, and 20 mM Tris (pH 7.5), which was incubated at 37 °C for 1 h.
    RNA for the substrate-B format reactions was transcribed with 14 additional nucleotides at the 3′ end, which were removed using E. coli M1 RNA and an external guide RNA to generate a homogeneous terminus bearing a 2′- and 3′-hydroxyl (Forster and Altman, 1990). The cleavage reaction employed 20 μM RNA transcript and 20 μM guide RNA (Table S2), which were annealed by heating at 70 °C for 3 min and cooling to room temperature, then 2.5 μM M1 RNA was added, the mixture was incubated at 37 °C for 5 min, and cleavage was carried out in a mixture containing 100 mM MgCl2, 100 mM NH4Cl, and 50 mM Tris (pH 7.5), which was incubated at 37 °C for 2.5 h. The cleaved products were purified by PAGE.” 😆 LOLOLOL!! 😝

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ jebstuart: So what is your evidence that the universe owes its existence to natural processes, Stuart? Let us all know about the 'natural processes' responsible for the initial singularity coming into existence 13.8 billion years ago. Teach us these facts, Stuart. You're 'such a good teacher.'
    Only then can we be sure that something beyond the natural, or supernatural wasn’t the ultimate origin of his 13.8 billion year old universe.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    " I am a genticist, and I just told you. Listen slowly: bases and nucleosides are found occurring in diverse environments, including deep space."
    – jebstuart teaching us that he can't even spell 'geneticist' (even though he claims he is one)
    and expecting us to accept his 'genticist's' assertions on astrochemistry

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    If matter itself comes into existence, then you cannot invoke matter as the cause of the origin of the material universe, you need something that is immaterial, that transcends matter. For materialism, there’s no matter before the Big Bang to “do the causing” of the finite point of the origin of matter.
    As the history of the universe is rewound to the Initial Singularity, the wave functions of General Relativity collapse. Newtonian physics collapses. Quantum mechanics collapses. Time collapses, and so does causal logic.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    The ignorance and stupidity of materialists not seeing the obvious, that causal logic dissolves and breaks down at the Initial Singularity, along with time, space, matter, Newtonian physics, Quantum Mechanics, and the wave functions of General Relativity.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    Ask yourself this question…if the entire universe rapidly inflated from an infinitely small initial singularity 13.8 billion years ago, what exactly assembled that initial singularity?

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    I'M JUST A BIPOLAR OLD WOMAN WITH DELUSIONS OF WIZARDS🧙‍♂️
    IF MY PEDOPHILE CULT DIDN'T TAKE ALL MY WELFARE MONEY,
    I'D HAVE ENOUGH TO BUY MEDICATION FOR MY DELUSIONS
    HARRY POTTER SAVE ME

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    ASK YOURSELF THIS QUESTION….. DOESN'T A MAGIC "INTELLIGENCE" SOUND AN AWFUL LOT LIKE DUMBLEDORE?
    MY FRIENDS THE SQUIRRELS IN THE PARK THINK IT DOES.
    SQUIRRELS KNOW THE SECRETS OF THE UNIVERSE.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    I infer an intelligent origin for the first living, metabolizing, dividing cell on Earth from the experimental E V I D E N C E which demonstrates DIPS (integrated digital information processing systems) in living cells, and from the problem solving capacities of EDMM (energy driven molecular machines) shown to exist in the cell. There is at present, however, no additional evidence available to infer the identity, methods, or intentions of that intelligence. Experimental evidence demonstrates that the cell is a paragon of digital information processing. It also demonstrates that the cell is a paragon of integrated energy powered machines.
    The design and implementation of these features that were necessary in the first living, metabolizing, dividing cell inexorably trace to an intelligent mind. No Bible needed, no magical appeal to blind prebiotic chemistry.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    @ Enlightened: "That's not affirming the consequent" It sure is, and I've laid it out perfectly:
    P1: If X, then Y. "If the fundamental forces of nature started life on Earth (X), then we should be here today (Y)."
    P2: Y. "We are here today."
    C: Therefore, X. "Therefore the fundamental forces of nature started life on Earth."
    You're anything BUT enlightened. You're merely logically fallacious.

    (Original post: "Apparently, a prebiotic Earth under the fundamental forces of nature managed to do all those things – otherwise, we wouldn't be here.")

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    I THINK THE SQUIRRELS IN THE PARK ARE PLOTTING AGAINST ME.
    THEY KEEP CALLING ME "CRAZY OLD CAT LADY".
    AND THEN THEY THROW THEIR ACORNS AT ME.
    I MUST LEARN THEIR SECRETS

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    This jackass impostor of me (below) blathering about, ”I THINK THE SQUIRRELS IN THE PARK ARE PLOTTING AGAINST ME. “ is a sock puppet of Devilmonkey.
    He is to be ignored and pitied.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    NATURAL FORCES AND NATURAL PROCESSES MAKE ME ANGRY.
    THEY DON'T HAVE ANY MAGIC IN THEM.
    I WAS PROMISED A MAGIC WIZARD AT MY SUNDAY SCHOOL CULT MEETING.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    This jackass impostor of me (below) blathering about, ” NATURAL FORCES AND NATURAL PROCESSES MAKE ME ANGRY. “ is a sock puppet of Devilmonkey.
    He is to be ignored and pitied.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    "Very sad, behind this sock account is a poor soul with rejection complex, using profane language to make up for loveless, possibly abusive childhood, and the barren solitude of his meager scraping through life drives his mind into insanity."
    – Dancho Konstantinov's best of the best on Devilmonkey's impostor sock account of me

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    ”Implying that an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of DNA into oligonucleotides and smaller molecules didn't exist in a prebiotic world?”
    – Enlightened knows about prebiotic DNA and protein enzymes

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    ” Another simulacrum device that you're going to ignore because it doesn't fit your Nirvana Fallacy narrative of a prebiotic world sans machinery?”
    – Enlightened’s take on prebiotic nature
    – Enlightened’s machine-based view of abiogenesis

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    ” That they're wild-types doesn't invalidate their research.” (10.1016/j.chembiol.2013.12.004)
    – Enlightened defends shoehorning of wild-type enzymes in OOL RNA experiments

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    "The purpose of the ABI Expedite 8909 is to be a simulacrum device. In other words, they're simulating a number sequences of synthetic oligonucleotides that would've existed in a prebiotic world, and they're accelerating the trial-and-error process."
    – Enlightened's take on prebiotic technology

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    I INFER THAT SQUIRRELS HAVE TELEPATHY BASED ON THE EXPERIMENTAL E V I D E N C E FOUND IN
    DIPS (DELUSION BASED IMAGINARY PSEUDO SCIENCE)
    THATS WHERE A WIZARD WITH THE POWER OF THE PARADOX©™
    GIVES SQUIRRELS THE ABILITY TO READ OUR THOUGHTS.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    REPENT NOW BEFORE OUR SQUIRREL OVERLORDS TAKE OVER AND PUNISH US FOR OUR WICKED WAYS.
    SQUIRRELS WILL POSSESSES THE MAGIC GIFTS OF OUR SKY WIZARD🧙‍♂️
    CAN USE THIS PARADOX©™ WITCHCRAFT TO OVER POWER EVEN THE STRONGEST MAN.
    THAT AND THEY KNOW KUNG-FU.

  • RESISTANCE IS FUTILE

    I WENT TO CHERNOBYL TO GET BIT BY RADIOACTIVE ANIMALS (HOPEFULLY SQUIRRELS)
    IN ORDER TO GAIN SUPERPOWERS JUST LIKE MY SKY WIZARD.AND HIS PARADOX©™ MAGIC 🧙‍♂️
    UNFORTUNATELY…
    ALL I GOT WAS LEUKEMIA….. AND A NASTY RASH.

  • jebstuart

    "*And so are you (a n imposter account). Whatever happened to matchlockfun?"* REASONING IS FUTILE
    I'll tell you yet again miss, as your memory is like that of a rice pudding on the turn. Youtube contacted me with concerns that you and your other fundie pal Zaki Aminu seemd to present a real physical threat. They made changes to my online security, and I changed my username. Neither name is an "imposter", unlike your army of imposters eg. Matchlock Fun, Trashtalk Funk, Ergo No Boober, Extant Frodo 2, Chocolate Covered Reason, etc etc etc.
    I just hope your imagined "audience" to this thread doesn't see all this miss – you'd be embarrassed. Maybe I'll post it again. And again. And again. LOLOLOLOLOLOL!

  • jebstuart

    Enlightened : "rationally following the best evidence and data"
    FUTILE : "But you HAVE NONE, you liar."
    Enlightened : https://www.docdroid.net/tv9RahF/list-of-evidence-for-abiogenesis.pdf You were saying?
    FUTILE : Cute list. Pick one, liar. Let's discuss. You'll lose. Every one. Guaranteed."
    I have seriously not laughed so hard and for so long in YEARS! I'm trying to think of a villainess from TV/movies who speaks like that.
    Still, she can no longer say there is "no evidence", just that IF SHE EVER read it, she "KNOWS" she can shred it with her "towering knowledge base". LOL, What a prankster.

  • jebstuart

    "There is ZERO evidence for abiogenesis" REASONING IS FUTILE
    "Pick one from the list (of evidences for abiogeneis)" REASONING IS FUTILE
    "And you'll lose. Guaranteed" REASONING IS FUTILE.
    She's taking the comedy to the next level.

  • Keaqa n

    So the life that sparked billions pf years ago mutated into the thing typing these words present time and its ego separates it from everything else in the universe? Nice

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