PBS NewsHour Weekend live show September 8, 2019
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PBS NewsHour Weekend live show September 8, 2019


Captioning sponsored by WNET>>Sreenivasan: ON THIS EDITION FOR SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 8: PRESIDENT TRUMP SAYS HE CANCELED A SECRET MEETING WITH THE TALIBAN. THE LATEST ON THE AFTERMATH OF HURRICANE DORIAN. AND, IN OUR SIGNATURE SEGMENT: TACKLING THE NORMS OF MASCULINITY. NEXT, ON PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND.>>PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADE POSSIBLE BY: BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ. SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III. THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEIN FAMILY. THE J.P.B. FOUNDATION. ROSALIND P. WALTER, IN MEMORY OF GEORGE O’NEIL. BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG. CORPORATE FUNDING IS PROVIDED BY MUTUAL OF AMERICA– DESIGNING CUSTOMIZED INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP RETIREMENT PRODUCTS. THAT’S WHY WE’RE YOUR RETIREMENT COMPANY. ADDITIONAL SUPPORT HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY: AND BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. A PRIVATE CORPORATION FUNDED BY THE AMERICAN PEOPLE. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU. FROM THE TISCH WNET STUDIOS AT LINCOLN CENTER IN NEW YORK, HARI SREENIVASAN.>>Sreenivasan: GOOD EVENING, AND THANKS FOR JOINING US. A POSSIBLE PEACE DEAL BETWEEN THE U.S. AND THE TALIBAN, THAT COULD LEAD TO THE WITHDRAWAL OF U.S. TROOPS FROM AFGHANISTAN, ENDED ABRUPTLY LAST NIGHT WHEN PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP ISSUED A SERIES OF SURPRISING TWEETS. AFTER MONTHS OF NEGOTIATIONS, THE PRESIDENT TWEETED, “UNBEKNOWNST TO ALMOST EVERYONE, THE MAJOR TALIBAN LEADERS AND, SEPARATELY, THE PRESIDENT OF AFGHANISTAN, WERE GOING TO SECRETLY MEET WITH ME AT CAMP DAVID ON SUNDAY.” HE THEN “CALLED OFF” MORE NEGOTIATIONS. MR. TRUMP SAID HE WAS CANCELING ALL TALKS BECAUSE THE TALIBAN ADMITTED TO A SUICIDE CAR BOMBING ON THURSDAY NEAR THE U.S. EMBASSY IN KABUL THAT KILLED A U.S. SOLDIER AND 11 OTHERS. THE BODY OF SERGEANT FIRST CLASS ELIS BARRETO ORTIZ WAS RETURNED LAST NIGHT. SECRETARY OF STATE MIKE POMPEO ATTENDED THE CEREMONY AT DOVER AIR FORCE BASE. ORTIZ WAS THE FOURTH U.S. SERVICE MEMBER KILLED IN AFGHANISTAN IN THE PAST TWO WEEKS. THIS MORNING ON THE SUNDAY TV TALK SHOWS, POMPEO DEFENDED THE PRESIDENT’S DECISION TO CALL OFF THE PEACE TALKS.>>WHEN THE TALIBAN TRIED TO GAIN A NEGOTIATING ADVANTAGE BY CONDUCTING TERROR ATTACKS INSIDE OF THE COUNTRY, PRESIDENT TRUMP MADE THE RIGHT DECISION TO SAY THAT’S NOT GOING TO WORK. WE ARE GOING TO WALK AWAY FROM A DEAL, IF OTHERS TRY TO USE VIOLENCE TO ACHIEVE BETTER ENDS IN THE NEGOTIATIONS. IT’S NOT RIGHT. IT’S NOT APPROPRIATE. IT KILLED AN AMERICAN, AND IT MADE NO SENSE FOR THE TALIBAN TO BE REWARDED FOR THAT KIND OF BAD BEHAVIOR.>>Sreenivasan: JOINING US NOW FROM AFGHANISTAN VIA SKYPE IS CRAIG NELSON, KABUL BUREAU CHIEF FOR THE “WALL STREET JOURNAL.” CRAIG, WERE YOU SURPRISE BY THE PRESIDENT’S TWEET?>>YES, VERY. PRESIDENT TRUMP HAS SORT OF STEERED CLEAR OF THE AFGHAN PEACE PROCESS QUITE A BIT. AS A CANDIDATE HE OF, OF COURSE SAID HE WOULD LIKE TO SEE U.S. TROOPS OUT OF THERE, BUT SINCE THE PEACE PROCESS SORT OF GOT STARTED AND THE U.S. STARTED DIRECT TALKS WITH THE TALIBAN LAST SUMMER, HE HAS MADE OCCASIONAL COMMENTS BUT HE HAS GENERALLY STEERED CLEAR. SO THAT WAS A PRETTY– THAT WAS SHOCKING.>>WHAT ABOUT THE PARTIES INVOLVED THAT YOU HAVE BEEN ABLE TO TOUCH BASE WITH. WERE THEY PLANNING ON HAVING A MEETING THE TALIBAN HAS SAID THAT THEY HAD RECEIVED AN INVITATION FROM PRESIDENT TRUMP LAST MONTH TO COME TO WASHINGTON TO VISIT. THE TALIBAN DIDN’T SPECIFY A DATE TODAY. THE AFGHAN GOVERNMENT SORT OF LEAKED INFORMATION ON FRIDAY SUGGESTING THAT THEY WERE TBG TO GO TO WASHINGTON. THEY MADE NO– THERE WAS NO INDICATION AT ALL THAT THEY WERE GOING TO MEET WITH PRESIDENT TRUMP AND THERE WAS NO INDICATION THAT THEY WERE GOING TO GO IT CAMP DAVID. SO OBVIOUSLY WHEN THERE IS A CAMP DAVID EVENT, THAT’S A VERY, VERY BIG DEAL. AND PRESIDENT TRUMP OBVIOUSLY WANTED TO SORT OF TRY TO BRIDGE THE DIFFERENCES AND PUSH THIS U.S. TALIBAN AGREEMENT OVER THE LINE. OBVIOUSLY SOMETHING HAS HAPPENED. THE SINGLE AMERICAN DEATH FROM A SUICIDE BOMBING ON THURSDAY HERE IN CAB UL SEEMS LIKE A PRETTY FLIMSY PRETEXT TO CALL OFF THE NEGOTIATIONS AS YOU WELL-KNOWN THERE ARE FREQUENT BOMBINGS HERE. WE HAVE HAD AT LEAST 14 U.S. SOLDIERS KILLED THIS YEAR SO FAR. SO OBVIOUSLY SOMETHING ELSE IS AT PLAY HERE AND THE WHITE HOUSE HASN’T SAID EXACTLY WHAT THAT IS.>>HOW WERE THE TALKS PROGRESSING? I MEAN OVER THE PAST COUPLE OF MONTHS WE HAVE HEARD THEY ARE GETTING CLOSER AND CLOSER. WHAT WERE THE FINAL STICKING POINTS.>>WE WERE THERE. WE WERE THERE ON SUNDAY. THE U.S., THE U.S. CHIEF, CHIEF U.S. NEGOTIATOR TO THE U.S. TALIBAN TALKS THAT HAVE BEEN TAKING PLACE IN QATAR SAID THAT AFTER NINE ROUNDS OF TALKS HE TWEETED THAT WE ARE AT THE THRESHHOLD. AND ALL THAT WAS NEEDED AT THAT POINT A WEEK AGO WAS PRESIDENT TRUMP TO SIGN OFF. THE AMBASSADOR, CAME TO CAB UL. — KABUL. HERE HE WAS EXOR YAITED BY AFGHAN AND OFFICIALS AND THE PRESIDENT OF AFGHANISTAN WHO FEEL THAT THEY RESENT THAT THEY HAVE BEEN LEFT OUT OF THE TALKS, WHO FEEL THAT THEY ARE NOT GETTING ADEQUATE SECURITY GUARANTEES FROM THE TALIBAN. AND HE HAD A VERY, VERY ROUGH WEEK HERE. HE RETURNED TO TALK TO THE TALIBAN ON FRIDAY. AND THEN BINGO, THE TWEET DROPPED.>>IS THERE ANY HOPE OF SALVAGING THESE KRVETIONS? I MEAN THIS SEEMS TO UNDERCUT THE WORK THAT AZAD HAS BEEN DOING FOR MONTHS.>>REMARKABLE. I HAVE BEEN AT IT FOR ABOUT A YEAR. IT SAN IMPORTANT STEPPING STONE TO A COMPREHENSIVE AGREEMENT TO END THIS NEARLY 18 YEAR WAR WHICH IS AMERICA’S LONGEST WAR. HE WAS ALMOST THERE. SO ST A REAL BIG SETBACK. I DON’T THINK ANYONE THINKS NOW, CERTAINLY THE CONSENSUS IS THAT THERE IS NO MILITARY VICTORY HERE IN AFGHANISTAN. THE U.S. AND TALIBAN HAVE BOTH CONCEDED THAT NO SIDE IS GOING TO WIN. THE TALIBAN CONTROLS MORE TERRITORY IN OOF BEGAN STAND THAN THEY HAVE SINCE THE U.S. INVASION IN 2001. SO THE PROSPECT OF MILITARY VICTORY IS GONE. THEY ARE GOING TO HAVE TO TALK. THEY ARE GOING TO HAVE TO COME BACK TO THE TABLE AT SOME POINT.>>.>>UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES, HOW MANY PEOPLE ARE GOING TO DIE IN THE MEAN TIME, THAT’S THE QUESTION.>>CRAIG NELSON, “THE WALL STREET JOURNAL” KABUL BUREAU CHIEF JOINING US LIVE TONIGHT, THANKS SO MUCH.>>YOU’RE WELCOME.>>Sreenivasan: THE STORM THAT WAS HURRICANE DORIAN MADE ONE MORE LANDFALL YESTERDAY, STRIKING EASTERN CANADA. IN HALIFAX, A CONSTRUCTION CRANE COLLAPSED FROM WINDS THAT TOPPED 90 MILES PER HOUR. THE CANADIAN MILITARY WAS DEPLOYED TO HELP CLEAR ROADS AND RESTORE POWER TO HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF HOMES AND BUSINESSES THROUGHOUT NOVA SCOTIA. IN THE BAHAMAS, WHERE DORIAN HIT THE NORTHERN ISLANDS AS A CATEGORY FIVE HURRICANE LAST WEEK, OFFICIAL SAY THE DEATH TOLL OF MORE THAN 40 PEOPLE IS EXPECTED TO RISE. EVACUATIONS CONTINUE, WITH FERRIES BRINGING SURVIVORS FROM THE HARD-HIT ABACO ISLANDS TO THE BAHAMAS CAPITAL CITY OF NASSAU. A CARGO SHIP WITH A CREW OF 24 ON BOARD OVERTURNED AND CAUGHT FIRE AS IT LEFT THE PORT OF BRUNSWICK IN GEORGIA LATE LAST NIGHT. THE U.S. COAST GUARD RESCUED ALL BUT FOUR OF THOSE ON BOARD AFTER RECEIVING A 911 CALL THAT THE 656-FOOT VEHICLE CARRIER, “THE GOLDEN RAY,” WAS LISTING HEAVILY IN SAINT SIMON’S SOUND. OTHER VESSELS ARE NOT ALLOWED WITHIN A HALF MILE OF THE SHIP, WHILE AN INVESTIGATION AND SEARCH FOR THE MISSING CREW MEMBERS IS UNDERWAY. DEMONSTRATORS IN HONG KONG MARCHED TO THE U.S. CONSULATE TODAY TO ASK PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP TO LIBERATE THE SEMI- AUTONOMOUS TERRITORY FROM CHINA. THOUSANDS JOINED THE PEACEFUL MARCH AND CHANTED “RESIST BEIJING” WHILE WAVING AMERICAN FLAGS AND SINGING THE STAR- SPANGLED BANNER. THEY URGED WASHINGTON TO PASS A BILL CALLED THE “HONG KONG DEMOCRATIC AND HUMAN RIGHTS AC”” THAT WOULD IMPOSE SANCTIONS ON OFFICIALS WHO SUPPRESS HUMAN RIGHTS. VIOLENCE BROKE OUT LATER IN A BUSINESS DISTRICT AND POLICE FIRED TEAR GAS AT PROTESTERS WHO VANDALIZED SUBWAY STATIONS, SET FIRES, AND BLOCKED TRAFFIC. FORMER SOUTH CAROLINA GOVERNOR AND CONGRESS MEMBER MARK SANFORD BECAME THE THIRD CHALLENGER TO PRESIDENT TRUMP FOR THE REPUBLICAN NOMINATION IN 2020. SANFORD ANNOUNCED HIS RUN ON FOX NEWS SUNDAY, SAYING “THE REPUBLICAN PARTY HAS LOST ITS WAY.” HE AND THE OTHER CHALLENGERS FACE AN UPHILL BATTLE FOR DELEGATES, AS STATES INCLUDING SOUTH CAROLINA HAVE ALREADY CANCELED THEIR REPUBLICAN PRIMARIES AND CAUCUSES. BOTH PARTIES HAVE CANCELLED PRIMARIES AND CAUCUSES IN THE PAST WHEN AN INCUMBENT PRESIDENT IS RUNNING FOR A SECOND TERM.>>Sreenivasan: THE SUBJECT OF MASCULINITY IS A TOPIC OF CONVERSATION THESE DAYS. IT’S SOMETHING YOU SEE FROM THE OP-ED PAGES OF NEWSPAPERS TO SHAVING COMMERCIALS.>>BULLYING.>>THE “ME TOO” MOVEMENT AGAINST SEXUAL HARASSMENT.>>TOXIC MASCULINITY.>>IS THIS THE BEST A MAN CAN GET?>>Sreenivasan: THOSE WHO THINK MASCULINITY IS UNDER ASSAULT CRITICIZED THAT AD. SOME EVEN VOWED TO BOYCOTT THE COMPANY. BUT OTHERS APPLAUDED IT. THERE IS AN EFFORT UNDERWAY TO CHANGE THE WAYS OF THE AMERICAN MALE. YOU CAN FIND IT ON THE FOOTBALL FIELD, IN THE MOSH PIT, AND IN THE WORK OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. NEWSHOUR WEEKEND’S CHRISTOPHER BOOKER EXPLAINS. (♪ HARD ROCK MUSIC PLAYING ♪)>>Reporter: THE RHYTHM IS VIOLENT. ♪ THEY LAUGH AT ME WHEN I RUN I WASTE AWAY FOR FUN ♪>>Reporter: AND THE PACE IS MENACING. ♪ I AM MY FATHER’S SON HIS SHADOW WEIGHS A TON ♪>>Reporter: BUT THERE IS A CONTRADICTION RUNNING THROUGH THE SONGS OF THE BRITISH BAND, IDLES. THE SOUND MAY BE HARD, BUT IT IS DRIVEN BY COMPASSION, AN UNRELENTING CELEBRATION OF VULNERABILITY, ACCEPTANCE AND MINDFULNESS, ALL PERFORMED WITH THE INTENSITY OF A FREIGHT TRAIN. ♪ ♪ ♪ TONIGHT, THE BAND IS PLAYING FOR A SOLD-OUT CROWD OF 500 PEOPLE IN ALBANY, NEW YORK. JOE TALBOT IS THE LEAD SINGER, AND BAND’S PRINCIPAL LYRICIST.>>IT’S A PURPOSEFUL JOURNEY WE’RE GOING ON.>>Reporter: WHAT IS THE– THE PURPOSE?>>TO START A CONVERSATION, I THINK. I THINK ANY GOOD ART STARTS CONVERSATION, IT DOESN’T END IT.>>Reporter: THE CONVERSATION IDLES IS LOOKING TO START IS A COMPLICATED ONE. BUT AT ITS CORE, THEY ARE ASKING THE AUDIENCE– PARTICULARLY THE MEN IN THE CROWD– TO RECONSIDER HOW THEY TREAT ONE ANOTHER, HOW THEY TREAT WOMEN, AND HOW THEY TREAT THEMSELVES.>>IF YOU SHARE YOUR FEELINGS, YOUR LOAD GETS LIGHTER, AND YOU WILL HAVE A BETTER OUTCOME.>>Reporter: THROUGHOUT THEIR PERFORMANCE, TALBOT TAKES AIM AT WHAT HE SEES AS THE TRAPS OF MASCULINITY– HOW BOYS ARE TAUGHT TO BE TOUGH AND TOLD TO SWALLOW THEIR EMOTIONS. ♪ MAN UP, SIT DOWN CHIN UP, PIPE DOWN ♪ SOCKS UP, DON’T CRY DRINK UP, JUST LIE ♪>>Reporter: WERE THESE THE KIND OF WORDS YOU HEARD AS A YOUNG KID GROWING UP IN ENGLAND?>>YEAH, YOU KNOW, JUST PULL YOUR SOCKS UP, DON’T CRY. ALL THAT STUFF IS COMPLETELY NORMAL AND NORMALIZED. I WAS DEFINITELY PART OF THAT MACHISMO, PART OF THAT… DISCOURSE OF SUCKING IT UP, AND YOU KNOW, BEING TOUGH.>>Reporter: TALBOT SAYS BEING TAUGHT TO SUPPRESS HIS FEELINGS DID LITTLE TO HELP WITH WHAT WAS TO COME HIS WAY. ♪ MY MOTHER WORKED 15 HOURS FIVE DAYS A WEEK ♪>>Reporter: AT 16, HIS MOTHER HAD A STROKE AND WAS PARALYZED. AND AFTER HIS STEP-FATHER DIED, HE BECAME HER PRIMARY CARETAKER. DESPITE BEING TAUGHT TO BE TOUGH, TALBOT WASN’T PREPARED FOR HIS MOTHER’S DEATH IN 2015. HER PASSING WAS FOLLOWED TWO YEARS LATER BY THE STILLBIRTH OF HIS DAUGHTER.>>AFTER MY MUM DIED, BEFORE MY DAUGHTER DIED, AND I WAS JUST STRUGGLING TO SAY ALL THESE THINGS THAT I HAVE NEVER SAID. I WAS LIKE, WHY HAVEN’T I EVER SAID THEM? THAT’S MENTAL.>>Reporter: THIS IS WHEN TALBOT DECIDED TO START THERAPY.>>AND I JUST CRUMBLED. SO I REALIZED I HAD A LOT OF LEARNING TO DO AND IT WAS THE BEST THING I HAVE EVER DONE IN MY LIFE.>>Reporter: AND– AND SO, DO YOU THINK– DO YOU FIND YOUR PERFORMANCES AND THE EXPERIENCE OF PLAYING WITH A BAND LIKE THIS, IS IT A FORM OF CATHARSIS?>>YEAH. LEARNING HOW TO CHANNEL MY FEELINGS WITH BEHAVIOR AND ART. MINDFULNESS. PRACTICING– ( SIGHS ) SELF-RESPECT AND OUTWARD RESPECT AND LEARNING HOW TO CREATE A NEW LANGUAGE WITHIN MYSELF WHERE I CAN LIVE A BETTER LIFE AND SURVIVE WHAT I WAS GOING THROUGH.>>Reporter: RESEARCH IS INCREASINGLY SHOWING TALBOT IS CORRECT. LEARNING TO BE IN TOUCH WITH ONE’S EMOTIONS CAN CHANGE LIVES, AND THE WAY MEN ARE TRADITIONALLY TAUGHT TO HOLD THEM IN MAY BE CONNECTED TO AN AVALANCHE OF UNHEALTHY OUTCOMES. IN 2018, THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION PUBLISHED THE A.P.A. GUIDELINES FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL PRACTICE WITH BOYS AND MEN. THE FIRST REPORT OF ITS KIND, THE COLLECTED RESEARCH FOUND THAT “TRADITIONAL MASCULINITY, MARKED BY STOICISM, COMPETITIVENESS, DOMINANCE AND AGGRESSION, IS, ON THE WHOLE, HARMFUL.” WRITTEN OVER 13 YEARS, AND BASED ON 40 YEARS OF COMPILED RESEARCH, THE REPORT LAYS OUT SOME STRIKING MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH DISPARITIES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN. MEN ARE 3.5 TIMES MORE LIKELY TO COMMIT SUICIDE, AND MEN DIE FROM HEART DISEASE AND CANCER AT RATES 50% AND 80% HIGHER THAN WOMEN.>>WE KNOW THAT MEN, ON AVERAGE, DIE FIVE TO SIX YEARS EARLIER THAN DO WOMEN.>>Reporter: PSYCHOLOGIST CHRISTOPHER LIANG IS THE CHAIRPERSON OF LEHIGH UNIVERSITY’S COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, AND WAS A CO-AUTHOR OF THE A.P.A. GUIDELINES.>>WHEN BOYS ARE NOT ALLOWED TO EXPRESS THEIR SADNESS, THEIR HURTS– WHEN THEY’RE GROWING UP, THEY’RE ESSENTIALLY TAUGHT THAT THEY SHOULDN’T HAVE PAIN. AND WHAT THAT DOES OVER TIME IS IT CREATES A CONDITION WHERE BOYS WHO ARE BECOMING MEN STUFF THEIR PAIN. AND SO THE DOCUMENT SEEKS TO HELP PEOPLE UNDERSTAND ONE POTENTIAL PATHWAY FOR HOW MEN COME TO BE AT SUCH GREATER RISK FOR EXPERIENCING GREATER HEALTH PROBLEMS– PHYSICAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AND MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS.>>WE DON’T HAVE TO HIDE FROM IT. IT IS OKAY TO ASK FOR HELP. WE DON’T ALWAYS HAVE TO BE STOIC AND HOLD IT IN. IT’S OKAY.>>Reporter: TED BUNCH HAS GIVEN THIS TALK HUNDREDS OF TIMES BEFORE, TO EVERYONE FROM N.F.L. TEAMS TO LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES. AND TODAY, HE IS SPEAKING TO MIAMI UNIVERSITY OF OHIO’S MEN’S FOOTBALL TEAM.>>THERE’S A LOT OF PRESSURE ON ATHLETES AND THEY’RE NOT EXPECTED TO ASK FOR HELP. AND THEY’RE, YOU KNOW, YOU DON’T WANT TO DO ANYTHING THAT’S GOING TO MAKE YOU LOOK WEAK IN THE EYES OF OTHER PLAYERS, COACHES, ANYTHING. IF TAKE THESE BOUNDARIES OFF, THEN THERE’S ALL THESE DOORS THAT OPEN.>>Reporter: A CO-FOUNDER OF “A CALL TO MEN,” A NON-PROFIT VIOLENCE PREVENTION ORGANIZATION, BUNCH WORKS TO TRAIN AND EDUCATE MEN AND BOYS TO EMBRACE WHAT HE CALLS “HEALTHY AND RESPECTFUL MANHOOD.”>>WHEN WE EXPERIENCE OTHER THINGS LIKE DISAPPOINTMENT, SADNESS, HURT, AND PAIN, AND WE WERE THAT LITTLE BOY WHO WANTED TO EXPRESS THAT, LIKE BY CRYING, WHAT WERE WE TOLD?>>STOP CRYING?>>STOP CRYING. WHAT ELSE WERE WE TOLD?>>SUCK IT UP?>>SUCK IT UP. WHAT ELSE WERE WE TOLD?>>DON’T SHOW IT.>>DON’T SHOW IT. THAT’S RIGHT. WE WERE TOLD ALL THOSE THINGS.>>Reporter: BUT THE EMPHASIS ISN’T SOLELY ON EXPANDING THE EMOTIONAL RANGE OF MEN. IT’S ALSO FOCUSED ON HOW MALE SOCIALIZATION CAN BE HARMFUL TO WOMEN.>>WE’RE TAUGHT THAT WOMEN AND GIRLS HAVE LESS VALUE THAN MEN AND BOYS, RIGHT? WE GIVE THOSE MESSAGES ALL THE TIME. SAYING THINGS LIKE, “YOU THROW LIKE A GIRL.” WHAT DOES THAT LITTLE BOY LEAVE THAT INTERACTION THINKING, GIRLS ARE EQUAL TO HIM OR LESS THAN HIM? WHEN WE TALK ABOUT DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT– WELL, MOST OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT IS PERPETRATED BY MEN, THAT’S TRUE. MOST OF IT’S DONE BY MEN, BUT MOST MEN DON’T DO IT. BUT WE ARE SILENT ABOUT THOSE THAT DO, AND THAT IS MUCH OF THE PROBLEM AS THE VIOLENCE IS. DOES THAT MAKE SENSE, FOLKS?>>Reporter: BUNCH BELIEVES THE OPPORTUNITY FOR CHANGE IS NOW.>>WE’RE THE FIRST GENERATION OF MEN BEING HELD ACCOUNTABLE FOR SOMETHING MEN HAVE ALWAYS GOTTEN AWAY WITH. AND WE ARE GOING TO DECONSTRUCT MANHOOD. WE ARE GOING TO DECONSTRUCT IT, WE ARE GOING TO LIFT IT UP. RIGHT, BECAUSE THIS IS NOT AN INDICTMENT ON MANHOOD. IT’S ACTUALLY AN INVITATION TO MEN.>>Reporter: THAT SEEMS LIKE A REMARKABLY DIFFICULT TASK TO ASK WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE AMERICAN FOLKLORE. THINKING ABOUT THE AMERICAN WEST, JOHN WAYNE, ALL THESE IDEAS OF SELF-MADE, SELF-DRIVEN EXISTENCE.>>YEAH.>>Reporter: IT’S IN OUR D.N.A., FOR LACK OF A BETTER TERM.>>IN OUR SOCIAL D.N.A. BUT WHAT WE’RE WANTING, FOR BOYS AND MEN, IS FOR THEM TO UNDERSTAND THAT SELF RELIANCE IS GOOD. IT IS HEALTHY. IT IS IMPORTANT. BUT THEY DON’T NEED TO CONFORM TO IT SO RIGIDLY THAT THEY CAN’T ASK FOR HELP WHEN THEY NEED TO.>>Reporter: AND THIS IS WHAT IDLES IS BRINGING TO ITS AUDIENCE NIGHT AFTER NIGHT. A CELEBRATION OF THE RELIEF THAT CAN COME FROM LETTING GO. ( HARD ROCK MUSIC PLAYING ) TWO DAYS AFTER THEIR SHOW IN ALBANY, THE BAND IS IN BROOKLYN, PLAYING ANOTHER SOLD-OUT SHOW, THIS TIME FOR 1,800 PEOPLE. ♪ ♪ ♪>>WE’RE NOT SAYING THAT, LIKE, YOU CAN’T BE MASCULINE NOW. JUST ALLOW YOURSELF THE ROOM TO LISTEN TO YOURSELF AND BREATHE, AND FIND OUT WHO YOU ACTUALLY ARE.>>Reporter: HOWEVER YOU DEFINE WHAT THEY ARE DOING, IDLES HAS FOUND AN AUDIENCE. THEY WERE NOMINATED AS THE BEST BRITISH BREAKOUT ARTIST FOR THIS YEAR’S BRIT AWARDS. EARLIER IN THE SUMMER, THEY PLAYED IN CHICAGO AT THE LOLLAPALOOZA FESTIVAL. AND IN JUNE, THEY PLAYED THE LARGEST GIG OF THEIR CAREERS AT GLASTONBURY, ENGLAND’S ANNUAL MEGA FESTIVAL THAT HOSTS OVER 200,000 PEOPLE.>>THE FEELING– I– I CANNOT EXPLAIN TO SOMEONE THE PHYSICALITY OF ALLEVIATING THAT PAIN, OF JUST TALKING ABOUT YOUR FEELINGS. IT’S LIFE-CHANGING. IT IS.>>Sreenivasan: IT’S NEW YORK FASHION WEEK, WHERE DESIGNERS’ LATEST COLLECTIONS ARE ON FULL DISPLAY FOR THE INDUSTRY, THE PRESS AND THE PUBLIC. BUT WITH GLOBAL CONCERNS OVER THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND CHEAP LABOR INVOLVED IN CLOTHING PRODUCTION, THERE’S A GROWING MOVEMENT BY SOME IN THE INDUSTRY AWAY FROM “FAST FASHION.” I RECENTLY SPOKE WITH DANA THOMAS, AUTHOR OF“ FASHIONOPOLIS: THE PRICE OF FAST FASHION AND THE FUTURE OF CLOTHES.”>>”FAST FASHION” IS TRENDY CLOTHES MADE AT FAST– IN VAST AMOUNTS AT LIGHTNING SPEED, SOLD AT ROCK BOTTOM PRICES IN THOUSANDS OF STORES WORLDWIDE. THEY KNOCK OFF THE FASHION– THE TOP FASHION DESIGNERS, AND GIVE YOU CHEAP VERSIONS OF IT. BUT THEY SPECIALIZE IN VOLUME. THEIR BUSINESS MODEL IS ABOUT ECONOMIES OF SCALE. AND BECAUSE OF IT, WE ARE AWASH WITH CLOTHES.>>Sreenivasan: AND WHAT, WHAT KIND OF STORES ARE WE TALKING ABOUT?>>LIKE ZARA, H&M AND TOP SHOP AND MANGO, AND FOREVER 21, WHICH IS TEETERING ON BANKRUPTCY. SO IT’S KIND OF PROVING THAT THIS MODEL MAY NOT BE THE BEST BUSINESS MODEL.>>Sreenivasan: AND HOW QUICKLY ARE THEY CYCLING THROUGH AN INVENTORY, OR A FASHION? HOW QUICKLY DOES IT GO FROM THE SHOP THAT’S MAKING IT TO THE STORE SHELF?>>WITHIN WEEKS, A COUPLE OF WEEKS. I THINK ZARA HAS IT DOWN TO TWO WEEKS NOW, WHICH BRINGS CUSTOMERS INTO THE STORE MORE AND MORE OFTEN. AT ONE POINT, ZARA–>>Sreenivasan: AND THEY SPEND MORE.>>AND THEY SPEND MORE. YOU KNOW, THE AVERAGE STORE MAYBE YOU GETS IN THERE FOUR OR FIVE TIMES A YEAR, AND ZARA WILL GET YOU IN THERE TWO DOZEN TIMES A YEAR, BECAUSE YOU WANT TO KEEP SEEING WHAT THE NEW THING IS.>>Sreenivasan: SO IF IT’S ONLY TWO WEEKS BETWEEN THE TIME THAT IT’S MADE TO THE TIME THAT IT’S IN STORE, THAT MEANS SOMEBODY’S WORKING SOME SERIOUS OVERTIME HOURS TO TRY TO GET THAT FASHION READY.>>ABSOLUTELY. AND OFTEN THEY’RE NOT PAID FOR THAT OVERTIME. AND WHAT’S MORE, THEY’RE PAID BARELY A LIVING WAGE. IF SOMETHING COSTS $19.99, RULE OF THUMB IS, IT PROBABLY WAS, IT PROBABLY WAS– THE PERSON WHO MADE IT WAS PAID 19 CENTS SINCE, AND THAT HAPPENS IN PLACES LIKE BANGLADESH AND THE PHILIPPINES AND VIETNAM. BUT IT ALSO HAPPENS IN DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES. WE HAVE SWEAT SHOPS HERE IN AMERICA THAT ARE FILLED WITH WORKERS WHO ARE UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRANTS, AND THEY’RE RUN BY, YOU KNOW, OVERLORDS, AND THEY AREN’T PAID FOR THEIR OVERTIME, AND SOMETIMES THEY AREN’T EVEN PAID FOR THEIR REAL WORK.>>Sreenivasan: WHAT HAS SPURNED THIS MOST RECENT WAVE OF CAPITALIZING ON THESE MARKET FORCES, AND FINDING CHEAP LABOR OVERSEAS?>>WELL, IT ALL STARTED WITH NAFTA, REALLY. I MEAN, IT’S BEEN GOING ON FOREVER. WE’VE BEEN OFFSHORING AND LOOKING FOR THE CHEAPEST PRICE TO MAKE CLOTHES SINCE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BEGAN IN MANCHESTER 250 YEARS AGO. THAT’S THE BUSINESS MODEL, AS IT WAS FOUNDED BY RICHARD ARKWRIGHT, RIGHT THEN AND THERE WHEN WE KICKED OFF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. AND COTTON-OPOLIS. THAT’S WHERE I GOT THE NAME, THE TITLE OF THE BOOK. AND, YOU KNOW, IT’S ALWAYS BEEN THAT WAY. “OLIVER TWIST.” DICKENS, YOU KNOW, TALKED ABOUT IT THEN. AND ANGLES. FREDERICK ANGLES WROTE ABOUT IT IN THE WORKING CLASS. AND, WE HAVE THE TAZREEN FIRE 100 YEARS AGO– OR THE TRIANGLE SHIRTWAIST FACTORY FIRE 100 YEARS AGO, AND WE HAD TAZREEN, YOU KNOW, FIVE OR SIX YEARS AGO. SO THESE THINGS STILL GO ON. THIS IS HOW IT’S ALWAYS BEEN. THE GARMENT INDUSTRY IS SOMETHING THAT MOVES AROUND TO FINDING THE CHEAPEST LABOR. RIGHT NOW, THE HOTTEST MARKET IS ETHIOPIA, WHERE WORKERS ARE PAID $24 A MONTH TO MAKE YOUR CLOTHES.>>Sreenivasan: NOW, IS THAT A LIVING WAGE IN ETHIOPIA?>>NO, IT IS NOT.>>Sreenivasan: NO. SO THIS IS A JOB, BUT NOT NECESSARILY A JOB THAT’S GOING TO HELP THEM TO HAVE A SUSTAINABLE LIFE IN ANY WAY.>>NO. A LOT OF PEOPLE ARGUE THAT THESE JOBS ARE PULLING PEOPLE OUT OF POVERTY, AND WHAT THEY’RE DOING IS REALLY PULLING PEOPLE FROM EXTREME POVERTY, BUT STILL IN POVERTY. YOU KNOW, IT’S JUST HALF A STEP UP, IT’S STILL A PRETTY MISERABLE LIFE. AND THEY FEEL TRAPPED IN THESE JOBS. OFTEN THEY’RE ADVANCED MONEY, OR THEY CAN’T GET OUT BECAUSE THEY CAN’T GET ANOTHER JOB, AND THEY’RE NOT MAKING ENDS MEET. SO THEY HAVE TO WORK THREE OR FOUR. THEY’RE WORKING THEMSELVES TO THE BONE. AND THE PEOPLE WHO OWN THESE COMPANIES ARE AMONG THE RICHEST PEOPLE IN THE WORLD. THE OWNER OF ZARA IS– WAS, AT ONE POINT, NUMBER TWO, AFTER BILL GATES, WITH A WEALTH OF $68 BILLION. SO, YOU KNOW, IT’S, IT’S KIND OF A CAPITALISM-RUN-AMOK BUSINESS MODEL, WHERE THIS VERY ELITE GET VERY, VERY RICH, ON THE BACKS AND THE FINGERS OF THE VERY, VERY POOR.>>Sreenivasan: TO WATCH OUR EXTENDED INTERVIEW WITH AUTHOR DANA THOMAS, VISIT www.pbs.org/newshour.>>Sreenivasan: SO, YOU KNOW, WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE KIND OF FASHION ISSUE GOING FORWARD, WHO ARE THE DISRUPTORS? WHAT ARE THEY TRYING TO DO TO PREVENT SOME OF THIS?>>WELL, THERE’S SOME VERY COOL DISRUPTORS. SOME ARE IN SILICON VALLEY, SOME ARE HERE IN NEW YORK CITY. ONE IS CALLED MODERN MEADOW, AND THEY’RE GROWING LEATHER-LIKE MATERIAL IN LABS. THEY’RE CODING THE D.N.A., AND IT’S CALLED BIO-FABRICATED MATERIAL. BUT IT LOOKS AND FEELS– IT, YOU KNOW, IN ITS SCIENCE, IF YOU LOOK AT IT THROUGH A MICROSCOPE, IT IS LEATHER. BUT YOU CAN’T CALL IT LEATHER IF IT DOESN’T COME FROM AN ANIMAL. AND, THAT COULD, YOU KNOW, REALLY REPLACE INDUSTRIAL FARMING, WHICH IS HORRIBLY POLLUTING ON MANY LEVELS.>>Sreenivasan: SO WHAT IS SOMETHING THAT A SIMPLE KIND OF END CONSUMER CAN DO TO TRY TO DECREASE THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THIS INDUSTRY IN THE WAY THAT IT IS NOW?>>WELL, I THINK, SHOP LESS AND BURN THROUGH CLOTHES LESS. THE AVERAGE GARMENT IS WORN SEVEN TIMES BEFORE IT’S THROWN AWAY, AND IN CHINA, I HEARD IT WAS THREE TIMES. THAT’S KIND OF CRAZY, THAT WE HAVE THIS SORT OF CARELESS, CAVALIER WAY OF USING CLOTHES AND– AND WEARING AND BURNING THROUGH CLOTHES. YOU KNOW, WE USED TO NOT HAVE SUCH BIG CLOSETS, AND WE DIDN’T– WE WOULD BUY ONE THING, NOT TEN THINGS. MAYBE WE NEED TO GO BACK TO THAT, KEEP THINGS LONGER. SWAP HAND ME DOWNS. CHERISH OUR CLOTHES AGAIN. AND NOT JUST LOOK AT HIM AS A FAD THAT ARE COMING AND GOING BECAUSE THEY’RE INEXPENSIVE, WE GO, OH, BUT I CAN ALWAYS GET ANOTHER ONE OR, OH, I’LL JUST TOSS IT AND GET SOMETHING NEW FOR FRIDAY NIGHT. WE HAVE TO CHANGE THAT MENTALITY. WE CAN DO OTHER THINGS, TOO, LIKE INSTEAD OF BUYING A NEW DRESS, GO RENT ONE. OR, BUY ON CONSIGNMENT, OR PUT THINGS ON CONSIGNMENT. KEEP THINGS IN CIRCULATION. BUT MORE IMPORTANTLY, JUST BE MORE CONSCIOUS AND, AND, AND CARING ABOUT OUR CLOTHES.>>Sreenivasan: THE BOOK IS CALLED “FASHIONOPOLIS.” DANA THOMAS, THANKS SO MUCH.>>MY PLEASURE.>>Sreenivasan: FINALLY TONIGHT, IN THE BAHAMAS, CHEF JOSE ANDRES’ NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION WORLD CENTRAL KITCHEN IS DELIVERING MEALS AS MESSAGES OF HOPE THIS WEEKEND AND INTO THE DAYS AHEAD. VOLUNTEERS WERE IN PLACE AHEAD OF THE STORM, READY TO CARRY OUT THEIR NOW DECADE-OLD DISASTER- RELIEF MISSION. THE GROUP IS MAKING NOT ONLY SANDWICHES BUT ALSO HOT MEALS FOR THOUSANDS OF DISPLACED PEOPLE. THE GOAL IS TO PROVIDE 30,000 MEALS A DAY THROUGHOUT THE ISLANDS. THAT’S ALL FOR THIS EDITION OF PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND. I’M HARI SREENIVASAN. THANKS FOR WATCHING. HAVE A GOOD NIGHT. Captioning sponsored by WNET Captioned by Media Access Group at WGBH access.wgbh.org>>PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADE POSSIBLE BY: BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ. SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III. THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEIN FAMILY. THE J.P.B. FOUNDATION. ROSALIND P. WALTER, IN MEMORY OF GEORGE O’NEIL. BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG. CORPORATE FUNDING IS PROVIDED BY MUTUAL OF AMERICA– DESIGNING CUSTOMIZED INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP RETIREMENT PRODUCTS. THAT’S WHY WE’RE YOUR RETIREMENT COMPANY. ADDITIONAL SUPPORT HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY: AND BY THE CORPORATION FOR PUBLIC BROADCASTING. A PRIVATE CORPORATION FUNDED BY THE AMERICAN PEOPLE. AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE YOU. THANK YOU. BE MORE. PBS.

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