Theodor Herzl and the birth of political Zionism | The 20th century | World history | Khan Academy
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Theodor Herzl and the birth of political Zionism | The 20th century | World history | Khan Academy


The history of the Jewish people goes back roughly 4,000 years. In order to understand the desire by Jewish people in the late 1800s and early 1900s for a Jewish homeland, we have to go back
roughly 17 or 1800 years to the year 135 in the Common Era. It was then that Judea was a province of the Roman Empire.
Judea is the biblical home of the Jewish people. It’s the location of Jerusalem. In 135 of the Common Era the Roman emperor, Hadrian,
is able to suppress a rebellion by the Jews in Judea and after suppressing that rebellion, he expels the Jews from Judea. Hadrian expels the Jews from Judea. Not only did he expel them from Judea, but he actually
renamed the province. This province up here
in red was Roman Syria. He merges these two
provinces and calls them Syria Palaestina. Let me write that down. He renames it Syria Palaestina, which is essentially why for the next 1700 years or so and
even parts of it today are referred to as Palestine. Now, we will fast forward over the next more than 1700 years. Over this period most of the Jewish people are not now living in what was then Judea. They have settled in groups in Europe, in the Middle East, in Africa. There were even groups of Jews who
had settled in India. For the most part they thrived in their various communities, but unfortunately their history had a fairly large amount of persecution, of
discrimination, of kind of using them as a scapegoat.
This was particularly the case in Europe where you have the Christian church often kind of blamed the Jews on religious
grounds. They were an easy scapegoat any time things went hard. You had ethnic cleansing. You had pogroms. This was the Russian empire, especially as we get into the 1800s, was especially infamous in its treatment of the Jews. You have this long history
of Jewish persecution. In fact, much of Jewish tradition today is around remembrances of these various tragedies, these various persecutions. With that as the context, we then get into the late 1800s. Let’s go to 1860. 1860. You have the birth of Theodor Herzl. 1860. You have the birth of this gentleman right over here. Theodor Herzl born. He’s born to a
German-speaking Jewish family in the Austro-Hungarian empire. The family he’s born into
isn’t particularly religious. As a young man, he remains fairly secular. He’s not a particularly religious person. As he grows and he becomes
a journalist, he is able to observe the
anti-Semitism, especially that’s occurring especially
in the late 1800s in Russia, but throughout much of Europe. In 1894, so at this
point he’s 34 years old, still a fairly young man, in 1894 in Paris he directly observes the Dreyfus affair. The Dreyfus affair, in
which a French Jewish officer in the military
is accused of treason, accused of spying for the Germans. This leads to all sorts of kind of public anti-Semitism. It later
is shown that it was false claims on Dreyfus. Some people would debate whether this directly led to Theodor Herzl’s articulation of a need for a Jewish homeland,
but it was something that he directly observed, so it must have influenced him in some way. It was this and all the other
anti-Semitism that he observed either directly or
indirectly his entire life, or even that he was able to
read in the history books. Taking all of that in, and this is coming from a fairly secular individual, in 1896 at the age of 36, he
writes Der Judenstaat, which literally translates
as the Jewish State. Der Judenstaat. This was a very articulate description or desire, or articulation I
guess I should say, of the need for a Jewish homeland and a Jewish State. It’s really the birth
of political Zionism. Political Zionism. Now, where does the
word Zionism come from? The root is Zion from Mount Zion. Mount Zion is essentially
a hill in modern-day Jerusalem, but the word
Zion is often equated with Jerusalem, with the Holy Land, with kind of the home of the Jews. That would be roughly right over here, Jerusalem is roughly right over here. I stress the modifier “political,” political Zionism,
because there was already a movement to bring the Jewish people back to their ancient homeland in Judea, which could be referred to as Zionism. It was really Herzl who articulated a need to set up a political state and start to organize around trying to
create a political state. Over here I quote some of what
he wrote in Der Judenstaat. “We are a people, one
people. We have sincerely tried everywhere to
merge with the national communities in which we live, seeking only to preserve the faith of
our fathers. It is not permitted us. In vain
we are loyal patriots, sometimes super loyal.
In vain do we make the same sacrifices of life
and property as our fellow citizens. In vain
do we strive to enhance the fame of our native
lands in the arts and sciences, or her wealth
by trade and commerce. In our native lands,
where we have lived for centuries, we are still decried as aliens often by men whose
ancestors had not yet come at a time when Jewish sighs had long been heard in the country.
Oppression and persecution cannot exterminate us.
No nation on earth has endured such struggles
and sufferings as we have. Palestine is our unforgettable homeland.” This ends up getting huge traction, resonates with the Jewish diaspora, gives him the power to
essentially, the next year, organize in 1897 the
first Zionist Congress, first Zionist Congress where he’s able to bring
together likeminded, or at least people who
are looking to organize a way to eventually
establish a Jewish State, preferably in Palestine.
I say preferably in Palestine, and it’s clear
that this was the first choice, to go back to
the historical homeland of Judea, but even Herzl
himself had considered Argentina, which at the
time was very open-minded, very open towards immigration.
There was some talk of East Africa, British East Africa. In fact, the British
offered Uganda in 1903 to the what would later be called the Zionist Organization. It was considered and I believe it was the
sixth Zionist Congress. These were things that
were actually considered. But Palestine was always,
because of historical reasons, the hopeful home
of the Zionist Movement. I fully realize this is
an incredibly touchy issue regardless of where people stand on their views of Zionism or of Theodor Herzl. Some would view him as a visionary, view him as a hero, some would view him as starting the seed that led to the eventual occupation of Palastine
and the settlements that are going on there.
I will try my best to stay out of picking sides there. Regardless of where you
are in that argument, it’s pretty amazing how much foresight he actually had and his ability
to get this thing going. Even from the get-go, he
had some conversations with the Ottomans and other folks about being able to get land in
Palestine and all the rest. He wasn’t successful in his own lifetime. But even after that first
Zionist Congress, which was held in Basel, he
understood what he was doing and he was looking
beyond his own lifetime. This is a quote here from his journal and it’s pretty telling. “Were I to sum up the Basel Congress in a
word, which I shall guard against pronouncing
publically, it would be this: At Basel I founded the
Jewish State. If I said this out loud today I would be greeted by universal laughter. In five years perhaps, and certainly in 50 years, everyone will perceive it.” This is
an amazing impresison because the state of
Israel would come into a reality in roughly 50 years. With that said, and once
again I know this is an incredibly touchy issue, the one thing that is probably surprising
to many people is that he was not an extreme
individual. It comes out from some of his other writing that even though he wanted
this Jewish State, he was a fairly tolerant
individual and he did not view this only for the Jews and he didn’t feel that it should be taken by force or in any other way. It
comes out in his writing right over here. This is from his diary. “It goes without saying
that we shall respectfully tolerate persons of
other faiths and protect their property, their
honor and their freedom with the harshest means of coercion.” So protect their property, honor and … using the harshest means
of coercion to protect their property, their
honor and their freedom. This is a tolerant thing to do. “This is another area
in which we shall set the entire world a wonderful example. Should there be many such immovable owners in individual areas
who will not sell their property to us.” So, hey,
if we want to go there and properly buy land
but people don’t want to sell it to us, “we shall
simply leave them there and develop our commerce
in the direction of other areas which belong to us.” He wasn’t in the mood to really get into a confrontation or to antagonize anyone. And he recognized that
there were other people there that might not
want to sell their land to those that might settle this new State. Later on his life, actually shortly before his death, he actually
writes a novel about this potential State
that might be created. He writes, and this is
written in Altneuland, it literally translates
to The Old New Land, “It is founded on the ideas which are a common product of all civilized nations. It would be immoral if
we would exclude anyone whatever his origin, his
decent, or his religion, from participating in our achievements, for we stand on the shoulders of other civilized peoples. What
we own we owe to the preparatory work of
other peoples. Therefore, we have to repay our
debt. There’s only one way to do it. The highest
tolerance. Our motto must therefore be, now and ever:
Man, you are my brother.”

100 Comments

  • zululu2222

    well , I think Sal have chosen the "American official opinion " of the conflict in the middle east .

    that is the issue in USA you cant say what you really believe about Israel or the Jews organizations will fight you until you died publicly .

  • Prince Rajottam

    dude, I'm shocked to hear u use the word, 'dude'. I mean, looking at ur clothes in the profile pic, Im surprised that u know english.. Well done mate.

  • achille295

    I don't know a single arabic word, and you can't imagine what my frustration is to not be able to speak it. Thanks, I had a hard time studying english cuz French suck at it right ;)?

  • Prince Rajottam

    Cmon Ben, I love u guys.. U don't want to convert anyone. U don't wanna shout out ur prayers at 4 am from rooftops with bass boosters and to top it off, u've screwed massively larger armies in insanely short amounts of tym (yom kippur war). Sure u'll have disagreements with some tribal relegious sects (wahabbis for eg) from tym to tym, like when u killed jesus or when u took away someone's lands,,but believe me, they had it coming.. Totally root for u guys.

  • Prince Rajottam

    Oh my God !!.. u even know the correct wordplay involved in evoking sarcasm. Respect.. The 'French' part of ur comment was genius. Only one question. Why are u dressed like Syed Saladin in ur profile pic?

  • arthurthegreat

    Believe whatever the fuck you want, I couldn't care less.
    I've checked extensively and the quote you gave is a fabrication of your pea sized brain. I know you didn't intend to lie. It just so happens that you're a misinformed idiot, so a lot of nonsense come out of you just naturally.

    I'm out this bitch!

  • achille295

    You're right, that quote was fom the french scientist Louis Pasteur. Einstein instead said: "science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind", I couldn't agree more. Don't worry I know what his definition of God is, just like Michio Kaku said, Einstein believes in the "god of spinoza, the god of beauty".

  • n khilo

    That is not what occurred..people were forced out of their lands..and no they don't have equal rights either. It would have been nice if it actually worked out that way.

  • Boomi Alaw

    Just to let you know, When you are criticizing Muslims as a whole, you're also criticizing non-other than Sal Khan; who is a Muslim and is also married to a Muslim Umaima Marvi, who is a Pakistani American physician; get a life looser….

  • SoMuchMass

    What is wrong with you? Take your nonsense no-life agenda else where. This is a informative video. Not for idiots like you to spread the propaganda.

  • tejolson92

    And you confiscated their land with a point of a spear. None of it was legal, it was theft. You're a bunch of dirty thieves. They took back what is theirs. Good for them.

  • Sage

    agree.. all organized religions have to go, they should be replaced with humane democracy and equality for all human kind ..

  • Ulysses Jonah

    Do you call this education? where's objectivity, where's the whole story and what was going on on the other side, why lie and say not picking sides when you obvious you did, how is it that you're considering his words as just when he definitely knew there were people living there and have been for thousands of years, and the only way to raise a state there is by ethnically cleansing it of its population, which is sadly what happened. His words aren't different than bush's or any war criminal.

  • Boomi Alaw

    I used to watch, Chemistry and Physics video's of Sal, They were great! but for the first time, I am disappointed by Sal; The Ethnic cleansing of Palestinian's, The Transfer Agreement between the Nazi's and the Zionists, Illegal immigrations; Avraham Stern's collaboration with Nazi's, Irgun…all of these topics needed to covered!

  • ido105

    In the start of this series I didn't think that you'll do a video about this topic. I learned this topic in school many times because I'm Israeli and I must say that you did a great work

  • dilic

    Exactly! I was about to write somrthing about the transfer agreement. But maybe he will get to that when he covers the rise of Hitler and WWII.

  • dilic

    Well… if just enough people give your original comment a 'thumbs up', then I think Sal is almost obligated to give this issue a fair coverage. I mean, this is what he meant by "urging us to also do our own research". Well, here we did! But the community must let her voice known first. This is one of the reasons why the internet is so great of course! It has the potential for becoming a great tool for democratic decision making and research.

  • rhoadess

    The Jewish people and their struggles, 5:35 reminds me of the dwarfs in "The Hobbit: an unexpected journey". I suppose Smaug the dragon must represent some kind of powerful political power keeping them out of what they believe is their homeland. Not sure who Bilbo Baggins represents, any ideas?

  • DDD

    First of all, bashing is not a good thing to do. Second, you a projecting your thoughts on man while Khan is operating his quotes. No, imposing someone's governance on a territory does not necessarily include ethnical cleansing. In fact, this is a failure of governance, of state. Third, likening someone to criminal based on how you view his words, not actions, is false logic.

  • Mauro Augusto Mexia

    democratic decision making, not so much. I see it as a free market of ideas. Democratic decision making leads to group thinking, which is the suppression of individual thinking. But yea. Internet is the greatest tool we got against the suppression of knowledge!

  • Mauro Augusto Mexia

    I think Jews and Muslims should just chill out and accept they're brothers. Too much racism from both sides. It's really ugly. The sad thing is that they're all being used by the powers that be; those that survive by dividing and conquering nations… Yeah, you know what I'm talking about… This really deserves an entire series of videos. There is a lot more to history than a few key people. It is important to view things from the perspective of both sides always.

  • zvi303

    Because these things never happened?

    On the other hand, his description of early Jewish history is contradicted by all known documentation. He simply messed up.

  • zvi303

    It is amazing how you can ignore all of the facts. The records show that before the Jews came, the place had a population of 300,000 tops, and unless you paid off every local chief, you would not make it across alive. In fact, if you were an Arab from the wrong group, you could not travel at all.

  • zvi303

    It's amazing how a twisted mind can turns things 180%. The Christian world betrayed the Jews to death at Evian and later, and he blames the victim!

    Of course this video does the same, at the end.

  • zvi303

    No, he manages to stick in a whole bunch of anti-Israel lies by implication at the end, and he completely messes up the early history.

    Standard tactics. Tell the truth with words, and lie by implication. I've lost most of my respect for him.

  • zvi303

    That explains why he decided to ignore all of history in this video? I'm not surprised when you tell me he is a Muslim.

  • zvi303

    I can't help it if you believe lies. I live in Israel and work with Arabs; one was by boss. In fact, there is a positive quota for Arabs in government jobs.

  • zvi303

    I just would like to know if he later fixed his clear errors in early Jewish history. This is not a matter of opinion; he simply made a mistake, although I don't think it was entirely innocent.

  • Ulysses Jonah

    And using your logic, Europeans have more right to the land for staying there longer than the Hebrews wether in roman times or during the crusades, at least they have remains there, so current Israelis are invaders and occupiers like so many others to this land including Ancient Egyptians, Hittites, Persians, Babylonians, and the Mongol raids of the late 1200s … That stayed for a short duration destroying the culture of the natives, but the people survive in their customs and manners.

  • Ulysses Jonah

    Bashing or not I don't like his bias, and that's apparent on the quotes he chose. And sorry to tell you it does! for when did ever a majority accept to be ruled in their land by foreigners! He demanded a national homeland in an already inhabited national country. Finally, words ignites action, for god sake he's the father of Zionism, is he not? Check what Zionism is and wonderful acts it did.

  • Axel

    I wish you wouldn't judge ALL muslims by a couple of guys you see online in a video. There are over 2 billion muslims in the world so that's just unfair.

  • James Foreman

    Well done, this is a tough subject to do with any kind of honest objectivity. He did as well as can be expected, that is to say again, well done.

  • ISREAL CONNECTION

    Theodor Herzl had a big Idea, of having a Jewish land to show the people of the world that they could be better then the people that treat them so poorly , but Satan loved Jews because they didn't except Jesus but ordered him killed. They could be easily manipulated into hatred to kill in the name of there God rather then have compassion and love for the truth. Satan took his Idea and made it his headquarters to emanate the same kind of hatred to all the world as was done to them. Good day !!!!

  • Axel

    Judging 2 billion by a couple of thousands. It's still unfair and not millions marry under aged girls. Like maybe about 5 years younger or 7 years younger but not above that. Girls prefer marrying men who're older than them and usually by a couple of years since they're more understanding/mature and not alot of people celebrated 9/11. The people who did that just hate the U.S. I'm sure my parents didn't celebrate it. You're an angry persian.

  • CBBurns1988

    At least we follow the teachings of Jesus Christ, whom your people crucified because you shun what is good and love evil. You are indeed of your father, the Devil, just like Jesus Christ said in John 8:44. I believe the truth, which is Jesus Christ. You evil, money-worshipping Jews hate Jesus and want to destroy western civilization throught your political invention know as Communism. Know ye the truth, and the truth shall set you free-John 8:32.

  • Jacc Trippa

    1) Hertzl was an atheist
    2) Palestine was called Palaistinê in 400 BC by Herotodus, so he is misleading yall with that 135 CE statement
    3) Hertzl had The Rothschilds backing, it wasnt just magic that he gained that much steam..look at who signed the Balfour Declaration
    4) im not sure why he says they werent going to exclude anyone because they denied the ethiopian jews right to return in 76 and to this day are practicing eugenics on the african women

  • MSTVD

    we don't know that he created everything, don't bring up religion, i am not against the religious, but bringing up religious beliefs to back you up makes you look stupid

  • MSTVD

    no we don't there is no real proof and the torah, bible and queran were written by primitive man, the stories telling us about so many supernatural things that seem 100% impossible

  • SAFETY FOR HAITI

    HEY IM JEWISH AND I AM ALSO BLACK SO I DON'T REALLY APPRECIATE THAT WORD…. PS.. RACISM IS NOT A JEWISH THING!

  • davidovicc

    well my friend, if you don't believe in what you see in your own eyes, I am sure you won't believe in History!! you see in your own eyes what the Israelis going through with Muslims before they react to protect themselves. Israel has Christians who live in peace and serve the army faithfully without a single problem. Muslims on the other hand can't even coexist among themselves. just see what is happening to the Christians in Egypt and in all other Muslim countries.

  • thewelshviper

    Herzl was an Anti-Semite and an Atheist

    He even tried to make Jews convert to Christianity

    His purpose of wanting Jews to live in Palestine was nothing to do with the "Holy Land" of Israel

    Herzl was interested in The Dead Sea which has a worth of an estimated 4 to 5 trillion dollars

  • perfect1oNN

    unfortunately it doesnt matter how nice or eloquent he was in his writings, at the end of the day he was writing about the colonization of a land that had people living in it for thousands of years, now that is not nice…

  • trader0108

    The name Theodore Herzl is clearly associated with the term "Jewish Holocaust".   Theodore = Theology of the Chosen of God = Jewish  <<>>   Herzl = Hurts  =  Holocaust  ///  Theodore wrote about how Israel would come about due to Jewish Hurts or rather Theodore Herzl.Holocaust

  • trader0108

    It is very interesting to me that Theodore Herzl ( the Jewish recognized founder of today’s Israel ) was aged “44″ years old when he died in 1904 ( 1860 to 1904 ), and then it was another “44″ years later after Herzl died that the new country of Israel then came into existence (1904 + 44 = 1948 ).

  • Jason Cavitt

    What a shameless pander-fest. Go Zio, eh Sal? Thumbs effing down, and man, this puts a lot of Sal's other "lessons" into better context.

  • trader0108

    Within the word Theodore is the word odor = ador =Adolf as ( R is 18 th letter = L ( 12th letter ) + ( add )  F ( 6th letter ).
    Within the word Herzl, 4 of 5 letters are within the word Hitler, and the missing letters sum ( I + T = 29 ) are similar to the Z=26 only letter in Herzl that is not within the word Hitler.

  • trader0108

    The Jewish Diaspora in 70 AD was a Sabbath rest year and happened exactly six years after the burning of Rome in July 64 AD.  The Christian Holocaust by the Romans began a few years after 64 AD.  St Paul had just returned to Rome (protected from his near death in Israel by his Roman guards) just a few years before this 64 AD burning of Rome.

  • Hollands Glorie

    You should seriously read his diary. It makes a lot more things clear, and will make YOU eat your own words at certain points.

  • darchapo

    Pure, made-up history. 1) There was no expulsion of the Jews after 135 CE. None. There is no contemporary account, not even in Josephus. The 'exile' is not taken seriously by a single Israeli academic. Waht the Romans did do was close J'lem to Jews. Jews would have to wait until the Muslims arrived to see that rescinded. At the time of the destruction of the Second Temple, the majority of the Jews were already living in diaspora. 2) The name 'Palestine' is far older than the Romans. Herodotus and Aristotle refer to the region (with nary a mention of a 'Judea' long before the Romans came along. 3) Unmentioned in this fable is the fact that masses of European Jews fled European persecution by moving to the much more tolerant Muslim world, where Judaism flourished. 4) That Jews are a people…one people is daylight madness. Jews are members of a religion, like Catholics or Hindus. There are criteria for being a nation or people: common territory, common language, common history, common culture. Common territory? Even today there are more Jews in the USA than there are in Israel. Common language? Western Europe's Jews spoke the vernacular of their particular countries of residence. Those coming out of Spain spoke Ladino. The Yiddishkayt of Central and Eastern Europe spoke Yiddish. The Kaifeng Jews spoke Chinese. For most Jews around the world, Hebrew is only a liturgical language. Common history? The Ashkenazi of Europe have an entirely different history from the Arab, Ethiopian or Chinese Jews. The same goes for culture, not to mention cuisine. Calling for a state for all these strands to come together is like calling for Irish, American, South American, Italian and Palestinian Catholics to be entitled to settle a state for Catholics. 5) Herzl did indeed realize that there would be other people living in the place Zionists would seek to colonize. In addition to the flowery quotes provided here, he also promised ‘We shall endeavour to expel the poor population across the border unnoticed, procuring employment for it in the transit countries, but denying it employment in our own country’–Diary, 12 June 1895.

  • D. G.

    This is the most truthful factual historical account of the State of Israel. So all you delusional revisionist anti-semites take some notes & learn something instead of your hate mongering!

  • CoolHandBart Flying Around

    How many countries who allowed Jews into their country, had to kick them out do to their behavior, and why?

  • Marcel Molenaar

    Judeah was he grandfather of Theodor Herzl, Judah was in west Africa, there never was a state called Israel, Palestine's history is 6000 years old.

  • tofik roskin

    Theodor Herzl is a figment of history anyway. He was a Jewish renegade that created the most evil mob called Zionists. They are atheist and have no common foundation with Judaism. The Biblical Jews hates being associated with this term 'Zionist'.

    The land area of Palestine refers to the region which lies between the Syrian interior and southern Mediterranean coastal plains. The word Palestine is the derivation of “Plesheth”, which meant migratory or rolling. “The land of Palestine” was inhabited by a warrior tribe for most of the population. But in the Old Testament, the land is not called Palestine but Canaan.
    The name “Plesheth” has appeared in the Bible frequently and has come to be known in English as “Philistine”.
    The trace of the original populace of Palestine is rather difficult but the ancient inhabitants of Palestine are known to be ancient Greeks hailed from Asia Minor and not Arabs or Semites. The location of Palestine at the crossroads to some chief civilizations like Egyptians, Babylonians and Romans made it a frequently invaded land with several people living here through the ages.
    The region was among the earliest in the world to see human habitation, agricultural communities and civilization. During the Early and Middle Bronze Age, independent Canaanite city-states were established, and were influenced by the surrounding civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Minoan Crete, and Syria. During Late Bronze Age 1550–1400 BCE, the Canaanite cities became vassals to the Egyptian New Kingdom who held power until the 1178 BCE Battle of Djahy (Canaan) during the wider Bronze Age collapse. Modern archaeologists dispute parts of the Biblical tradition, the latest thinking being that the Israelites emerged from a dramatic social transformation that took place in the people of the central hill country of Canaan around 1200 BCE, with no signs of violent invasion or even of peaceful infiltration of a clearly defined ethnic group from elsewhere

  • Victoria Layrisse

    He, like many intellectuals is of a mild disposition, whilst the neocon globalists who latch onto and use his work, are in contrast, the extremists.

  • Guy Maor

    I think this is a great video. It gives the critics of Zionism solid proof that they don't truly understand what Zionism is all about. Unfortunately, it goes against their political ideology so they choose to ignore it.

  • gogadget go

    Nicely cherry picked excerpts of this manipulative, deceitful warmongering zionist Sal! you conveniently fail to mention his crazy ideas on HOW to realize this selfish, delusional and outright criminal eureka moment of his!!!! I know you're a well meaning kind of person an all, but I expected some consistency all across the board from you Sal. When you see a crime take place and stay silent, that makes YOU complicit as well.

  • David Bohm

    At this present moment in history the State of Isreal is trying to kick out African migrants by making Western Nations take them.

  • Haq Ghani

    Pure Zionist propaganda. Khan, like many other greedy people, has sold out to the Zionist global exploiters and oppressors.

  • Tom Sawyer

    Comone, the so could now Jews are KAZARIANS, not Jews. Real Jews should look like Arabs, Now so could Jews look European. They are not ethnic Jews. Learn TRU history and Forbidden Archeology.

  • Charlie :/

    "Amazing Insight" lool
    Old vid so I should allow you but I think the Rothschild banking house might have provided that "insight" you credit Theodore with 🤭

  • Zaphod Bebelbrox

    No offense meant, but it wasn't the "Christian" church that persecuted the Jews in Europe, but the Roman Catholic cult. This entity has long been known to be the antithesis of Christianity.

  • Eric Christopher

    Is it just me but the Persian merchant didn't spread the Indian invention of zero until late in AD times yet all these myths like 600,000 jews crossing a desert. Whoever took the census on the travelers should be the most talked about man in history

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